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101 Alexia Without AgraphiaThe patient is a 69 year old left handed man with a history of hypertension, insulin dependent diabetes mellitus and atrial fibrillation. Treated with coumadin, adjusted to keep the INR between 2 and 3. On the morning of admission he awoke at 4 a.m., sat momentarily on the side of the bed and then...Image/MovingImage
102 Migraine Visual Aura: A personal accountI am greatly indebted to the Nobel Laureate, David Hubel for his permission to publish his description of his migraine aura. The recording was made fortuitously at the time that I invited David to the Unit for Neuro-Visual Disorders to record an audio clip describing the experiments in the cat that...Image/MovingImage
103 Bilateral PtosisThe patient is a 65 year old physician who presented with intermittent drooping of his eyelids, particularly at the end of the day. He found that if he gently closed his eyes when he came to a stop in his car at a set of traffic lights, his eyelids opened more fully. He subsequently developed inte...Image/MovingImage
104 Hemifacial SpasmThe patient is a 72 year old man with myopia, childhood exotropia, progressive age related ptosis and right hemifacial spasm. Hemifacial spasm (HS) most often begins insidiously in the orbicularis oculi muscle in the early stages, as in this man. He presented with a 2 year history of involuntary t...Image/MovingImage
105 Benign Essential BlepharospasmPatient is a 55 year old woman functionally blind from severe benign essential blepharospasm. She presented with frequent blinking.continuous spasms of eye closure and great difficulty opening her eyes i.e. blepharospasm associated "apraxia of eyelid opening". Symptomatic Inquiry negative for...Image/MovingImage
106 Ocular DippingThe patient is a 32 year old woman with juvenile diabetes mellitus. She collapsed at home and was rushed to the emergency room where a diagnosis of a locked-in syndrome was made. The term Locked-in Syndrome (LiS) was coined in 1966 by Plum and Posner for a condition with the following criteria: 1....Image/MovingImage
107 Unilateral PtosisThe patient is a 46 year old woman who presented in July 1977 with horizontal double vision lasting two weeks. Three weeks later the left upper eyelid started to droop and by the end of the day the eye was closed. She had no ptosis of the right eye and no generalized fatigue. She consulted an in...Image/MovingImage
108 Restrictive OrbitopathyThis 71 year old woman was referred with bilateral optic neuropathy and thyroid associated ophthalmopathy (TAO) of Graves' Disease. She had been treated for primary hyperthyroidism on three occasions with radioactive iodine and was taking Tapazole 5 mg daily. Neuro-ophthalmological examination: ...Image/MovingImage
109 Retinal EmboliTemporary loss of vision in one eye, termed transient monocular blindness (TMB), is the most important visual symptom of arteriosclerotic vascular disease, arteritis and states of altered coagulability and thrombocytosis. In most patients, the visual disturbance during each individual attack of ...Image/MovingImage
110 Migraine Visual AuraThe patient is a 9 year old right handed boy who developed headaches in 1993 at the age of 8. At that time he told his mother that he had bad headaches starting at the back of the head, usually bioccipital, spreading over the top of the head to his forehead. The headaches were short in duration la...Image/MovingImage
111 Supranuclear Vertical Gaze PalsyThis 58 year old woman was referred to Dr. Robert Brown in March 1995 for evaluation of slurred speech. She remained under his care until her death. On examination she had signs of a pseudobulbar palsy: Dysarthria and dysphagia Diminished palatal movement...Image/MovingImage
112 Supranuclear Paralysis of Up and DowngazeThe patient is a 44 year old woman with a past history of ethanol abuse. She was transferred to the Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH) on 3/10/93 for evaluation of memory impairment, hypothalamic dysfunction and a one month history of diplopia and ataxia. In February 1992 (13 months PTA), she ...Image/MovingImage
113 Convergence InsufficiencyThe patient is a 58 year old man with idiopathic Parkinson's Disease for five years. He presented with an increasing shuffling gait, marked bradykinesia, mild to moderate rigidity in all four limbs and impairment in rapid movements of the hands. When he attempted to standup and walk he needed to...Image/MovingImage
114 Progressive External OphthalmoplegiaThe patient is an 18 year old girl, first seen in 1990 with a 6 year history of progressive ptosis. In 1986, at age 14, she was seen by an ophthalmologist and pediatric neurologist and investigated. Myasthenia Gravis was ruled out by a negative Tensilon test, negative anti-acetylcholine receptor ...Image/MovingImage
115 Saccadic initiation deficit of horizontal saccadesThe patient is a 68 year old right handed retired air conditioner repair man who presented with impaired balance and slow walking. For about one year he had noted difficulty lifting his feet high enough when climbing the stairs. From that time on, his movements slowed and worsened so that he had ...Image/MovingImage
116 Fourth Nerve PalsyThe patient is a 32 year old, left handed chemistry teacher who presented with intermittent vertical double vision. In August 1992 she noted, particularly late in the evening when reading in bed, vertical double vision. The images were one on top of the other and on occasions one image was slig...Image/MovingImage
117 Progressive External OphthalmoplegiaIn 1995 I published this case alongside eleven personal cases, three with the Kearns-Sayer Syndrome (KSS) and five with Progressive External Opthalmoplegia (PEO). Am J of Neuroradiol:16 (5);1167-1173. The patient was under the care of Dr. Raymond Adams from age 13 years. In 1991, at age 40 years...Image/MovingImage
118 Progressive External OphthalmoplegiaThe patient is a retired physician, age 70, who recalls having eye muscle exercises as a child way back in 1924. Years later, she noted difficulty in focusing her eyes on horizontal gaze to the right and left which preceded the onset of bilateral ptosis. She presented in 1985, at age 65, with mark...Image/MovingImage
119 Supranuclear Paralysis of UpgazeThe patient is a 71 year old woman who was admitted to the Cardiac Unit following an acute "rush to the head", diaphoresis, and palpitations. She felt she was about to faint. She described seeing gold rings in her vision for a few minutes. Past History: Partial complex seizures since 1987. Th...Image/MovingImage
120 Pendular Nystagmus; Horizontal Gaze PalsyThe patient is a 29 year old retarded man with a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by congenital absence of conjugate horizontal eye movements, preservation of vertical gaze and convergence and horizontal pendular nystagmus. Ocular motility examination: Conjugate horizontal pendular n...Image/MovingImage
121 Third Nerve PalsyThe patient is an 85 year old man with hypertension and Type II diabetes mellitus. He presented with a ten day history of drooping of the left eye, unaccompanied by eye pain or headache. With the lid elevated he had double vision in all directions of gaze. He came to the Massachusetts General Ho...Image/MovingImage
122 Third Nerve PalsyThe patient is a 50 year old man with Type II Diabetes who presented to an outside hospital in September 1996 with ptosis and an inability to open the right eye. Five months prior to admission (PTA), he had flu-like symptoms with mild fever, sinus congestion and diffuse myalgia in the chest, abdo...Image/MovingImage
123 Sixth Nerve PalsyThis 46 year old patient had at age 6, a tendency for the left eye to wander out. Her face photograph at that age shows an exotropia and at age 7, a year later, the exotropia was not quite as prominent. It was assumed that the exotropia was due to a non-paralytic strabismus. Past History: ...Image/MovingImage
124 Third Nerve PalsyThe patient is a 57 year old man who carried a diagnosis of atrial fibrillation and coronary artery disease post CABAG. He was seen in the Massachusetts General Hospital ER with acute double vision and headache and was admitted. Four days prior to admission (PTA) he developed a bifrontal headach...Image/MovingImage
125 Paraneoplastic Opsoclonus; Downbeat NystagmusThe patient is Case 27-1995 Case Records of the Massachusetts General Hospital (New Eng. J Medicine 1995, 333:579-586). The discusser was Dr. Elizabeth Engle, Associate Professor of Neurology, Harvard Medical School. The baby girl was born after a 30 week gestation, with a birth weight of 1.25 k...Image/MovingImage
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