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TitleCollection Number And NamePhoto Number
51 This is the anterior end of the left dentary (lower jaw) of Ceratosaurus.It has two beautifully preserved teeth exposed showing the taxonomically characteristic, longitudinal grooves along the inner surfaces. Ceratosaurus is a rare, predatory dinosaur of the late Jurassic Period. There is only one of these flesh-eaters in the Cleveland-Lloyd Quarry; however, at least five others are known from various Morrison Formation exposures in the Colorado Plateau and Wyoming. Ceratosaurus is also known from the Tendaguru beds of Tanzania in east Africa.P1048 James H. Madsen Photograph CollectionP1048n048
52 This tooth of Allosaurus is representative of most theropods (carnivorous dinosaurs) in being sharply pointed and curved with serrate edges like the blade of a steak knife. These dinosaurs did not chew their food, but tore off large chunks of flesh and bone, which they swallowed whole. (May 1968)P1048 James H. Madsen Photograph CollectionP1048n049
53 This is an accurate replica of the only egg discovered in the C-LD Q. It was found in a part of the quarry associated with a predominance of Allosaur bones and, very speculatively, is thought to be an egg of that most common genus in the C-LDQ.P1048 James H. Madsen Photograph CollectionP1048n050
54 Notice the banded structure of this thin slice of fossilized bone. Studies are being made to determine the significance of the individual layers; which, if representing annulations or yearly growth rings, as seen in trees, might permit paleontologists to ascertain the age of an individual dinosaur. (May 1968)P1048 James H. Madsen Photograph CollectionP1048n051
55 This thin-section of bone from an Allosaurus radius shows a classic alternation of lamellated annuli and non-lamellated zones, confirming the presence of true zonal bone in Allosaurus. Photo and slide were prepared and described by Researcher, Dr. Robin Reid. Magnification X 100.P1048 James H. Madsen Photograph CollectionP1048n052
56 There were two episodes of mineral replacement or fossilization recorded in the Cleveland-Lloyd dinosaur bones: the first represented by an inner, white layer of sparry calcite lining the marrow cavity in this specimen and the second a layer of pale, amethyst quartz crystals that grew inward from the walls of cavities as seen in some geodes.P1048 James H. Madsen Photograph CollectionP1048n053
57 This close-up of the rough surface of the bony core of a Stegosaur plate shows some of the numerous channels that indicate a rich blood supply. This is consistent with the belief that this animal was capable of thermoregulation, the control of its own body temperature by regulation of the blood flow through parts of the circulatory system.P1048 James H. Madsen Photograph CollectionP1048n054
58 This sacrum of a Camarasaur is in the collections of the Earth Science Museum at Brigham Young University. It exhibits the same tooth mark pattern as noted on a similar bone complex collected from the C-LDQ.P1048 James H. Madsen Photograph CollectionP1048n055
59 An unusually complete skull of a very large allosaur, originally collected at Dinosaur National Monument, is being prepared there by senior laboratory technician, Tobe Wilkens. There is cooperation and an ongoing exchange of ideas among the keepers and students of Utah's dinosaurs.P1048 James H. Madsen Photograph CollectionP1048n057
60 The "Cliff Skull" of Camarasaurus at Dinosaur National Monument is an important part of a comprehensive head skeleton study of this interesting Morrison Formation sauropod. One of several scientific papers now being prepared for publication by dinosaur paleontologists currently studying Utah dinosaurs.P1048 James H. Madsen Photograph CollectionP1048n058
61 Here is a scientific illustration of the skull of Camarasaurs lentus. Superior illustrations often are the most important part of a paper presenting a scientific description of a fossil bone, because they allow interpretation, not always possible, even with the best photographs. (March 1994)P1048 James H. Madsen Photograph CollectionP1048n059
62 This pathological, fossil rib is representative of about 2% of the dinosaur bones from the Cleveland-Lloyd Dinosaur Quarry, which exhibit anomalous conditions that record various kinds of disease or injury. Such bones are dramatic evidence that the dinosaurs suffered maladies and injuries similar to those of modern animals. (March 1994)P1048 James H. Madsen Photograph CollectionP1048n060
63 An unusual node near the distal end of a sauropod rib has been thin- sectioned to determine the nature of the pathology. (July 1972)P1048 James H. Madsen Photograph CollectionP1048n061
64 This original skull of Ceratosaurus magnicornis is of the type specimen collected west of Fruita, Colorado and described for publication by the Utah Geological Survey. (March 1977)P1048 James H. Madsen Photograph CollectionP1048n062
65 Stokesosaurus, a recently discovered and described Utah dinosaur, to date known only from the Cleveland-Lloyd Quarry, has a peculiar ilium (hip bone) that exhibits a small, vertical ridge at midlength of the outer surface. Sometimes a single character, such as this, is the only clue to the identity of a particular dinosaur, which allows scientists to separate it from other similar types.P1048 James H. Madsen Photograph CollectionP1048n064
66 This is the same left ilium of Stokesosaurus prepared and ready for study. (April 1972)P1048 James H. Madsen Photograph CollectionP1048n065
67 The premaxillae of Marshosaurus to the left, and Stokesosaurus above, each with four teeth are compared with one of a very small Allosaurus to the right, which has alveoli for five teeth. Although all three of these dinosaurs were carnivorous, notice the difference in the shape of the tooth bearing bones. Similarly, if the teeth of each were present, they could be easily identified, one from another. (April 1972)P1048 James H. Madsen Photograph CollectionP1048n066
68 A medial view of the premaxillae of a Marshosaur (left) with 4 teeth and Allosaur (right) with 5 teeth. These are important, taxonomic differences.P1048 James H. Madsen Photograph CollectionP1048n067
69 This is a close-up photograph of a sample from the locality, where dinosaur "stomach contents" were described over three decades ago. Scientists now re-examining the site suspect that it may be a fairly large mat of fossilized vegetation, including wood fragments and seeds, and containing the bones of the sauropod dinosaur, Camarasaurus.P1048 James H. Madsen Photograph CollectionP1048n068
70 Rarely, tiny dinosaur tracks, such as these, are recovered from the coal mines of Carbon and Emery Counties in east-central Utah. Dinosaur bones are usually found in one area or formation and tracks in another, but rarely are the two ever found together. Tridactyl (three-toed) tracks have been found in the rocky ledges above the C-LDQ horizon, but they were not in association with any fossil bones as found in the Quarry. One expert supposes that these tracks were made by a Stegosaur.P1048 James H. Madsen Photograph CollectionP1048n069
71 Three-dimensional, life-size models are very popular in many dinosaur exhibits around the world. Among the best are those to be seen at the Utah Fieldhouse of Natural History, a museum in Vernal, Utah. Triceratops is seen in the foreground of this photograph taken shortly after a Utah winter snow storm.P1048 James H. Madsen Photograph CollectionP1048n070
72 Another impressive, full-scale, life-like reproduction of a Morrison Formation dinosaur is the fiberglass model of Stegosaurus at Dinosaur National Monument near Jensen, Utah. The breathtaking Quarry exhibits of fossil bones exposed there are world famous and dinosaur paleontologists and tourists come from almost every country to see them.P1048 James H. Madsen Photograph CollectionP1048n071
73 These chilly dinosaur models: Ceratosaurus, Stegosaurus, and a juvenile Camarasaurus are near the Main Street or south entrance of the Utah Fieldhouse of Natural History in the Vernal City Park. This is the work of Malin Foster, a Utah sculptor. They were unveiled in the 1950s and have stood well the test of time.P1048 James H. Madsen Photograph CollectionP1048n072
74 This is the head skeleton and neck of Allosaurus presented in a formal garden setting by the generous lady who purchased the metal buildings, which now protect the C-LDQ excavation.P1048 James H. Madsen Photograph CollectionP1048n073
75 A life-like reconstruction (Trophy Mount) by David Thomas of the head and shoulders of Allosaurus was prepared over a welded armature supporting exact casts of the original bones. The muscles, then the skin, were sculpted in turn to achieve a very life-like representation.P1048 James H. Madsen Photograph CollectionP1048n074
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