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26 Unilateral Horizontal Gaze PalsyThe patient is a 62 year old woman with known hypertension. She was referred by her PCP because she could not move her eyes fully and look left. Neuro-ophthalmological examination: Visual acuity, fields, pupils and fundi normal Ocular Motility: • Slight head turn to the left • Conjugate dev...Image/MovingImage
27 Supranuclear Vertical Gaze PalsyThe patient is a 60 year old woman who was given a diagnosis of Progressive supranuclear palsy six months before she was referred by the Movement Disorders Clinic for evaluation of difficulty reading. Family History: Negative for neurodegenerative disease. Neuro-ophthalmological examination: Sup...Image/MovingImage
28 Pendular Vertical OscillationsIn 1996 this 50 year old woman had the acute onset of tingling in the left arm and mild ataxia. In 1974 because of progressive symptoms and the onset of double vision attributed to a bilateral sixth nerve palsy, she consulted a neurologist at an outside hospital. She was given a diagnosis of Multip...Image/MovingImage
29 Fourth Nerve PalsyThe patient is a 64 year old engineer who noted whilst driving around Thanksgiving time double vision with one image on top of the other. Vertical double vision persisted and he was referred to the Massachusetts General Hospital for evaluation. Past History: 1991 Hyperthyroidism with Graves' Dise...Image/MovingImage
30 Pseudo-Internuclear OphthalmoplegiaIn 1969 this 54 year old man presented with a one month history of blurry vision which started suddenly one afternoon. He said he was "just not focusing" and he saw two images when he "relaxed his sight". He could see clearly covering one eye. Initially, the difficulty in focusing occurred la...Image/MovingImage
31 Bilateral Internuclear Ophthalmoplegia (INO)The patient is a 48 year old woman who presented with horizontal double vision looking to the right and to the left. She also noted blurring of vision with the image jerking horizontally back and forth. Neuro-ophthalmological examination: Visual acuity 20/20 OU corrected Visual fields, pupils, and f...Image/MovingImage
32 Ocular Motor ApraxiaThis elderly patient was referred to the Movement Disorder Clinic for evaluation of abnormal head thrust movements when asked to look on command to the right or to the left. His random eye movements were full vertically and horizontally. Diagnosis: Acquired Ocular Motor Apraxia ...Image/MovingImage
33 Bilateral Sixth Nerve PalsyThe patient is a 60 year old woman who consulted her ophthalmologist with a chief complaint of double vision looking to the left. He diagnosed of a left sixth nerve palsy. No investigations were done. Two years later she complained of diplopia looking to the right. A diagnosis of bilateral six...Image/MovingImage
34 Bilateral Internuclear OphthalmoplegiaThis case was reported by Cogan DG and Wray SH. Internuclear ophthalmoplegia as an early sign of brain tumor. Neurology 1970; 20:629-633. The patient is Case 1. He is a 4 ½ year old boy whose parents noted that the right eye had been "drifting" for four months. On examination the only signific...Image/MovingImage
35 Jaw WinkingThis young boy was born at full term after a normal pregnancy with congenital unilateral ptosis of the left eyelid. His mother noticed that when he was sucking on a bottle the ptotic eyelid opened and closed. A diagnosis of the Marcus-Gunn jaw winking phenomenon was made. The first case of thi...Image/MovingImage
36 Paroxysmal Skew DeviationIn 1970 I saw this unique case with Dr. Cogan. The patient is a 60 year old hypertensive woman with a ten year history of intermittent vertical double vision and oscillopsia. Neurological examination between attacks of diplopia showed: Visual acuity 20/25 OU Visual fields, pupils and fundus exami...Image/MovingImage
37 Titubation OpsoclonusThis 52 year old woman presented with unsteady gait. She was admitted to an outside hospital where a diagnosis was made. 1. Paraneoplastic opsoclonus 2. Paraneoplastic cerebellar syndrome with bilateral limb and gait ataxia and titubation 3. Adenocarcinoma of the breast She was transferred to the M...Image/MovingImage
38 Pseudo-Internculear OphthalmoplegiaThis 32 year old man had the acute onset of double vision followed very quickly by a drooping of the left eyelid. Past History: Negative for any previous episode of double vision No history of strabismus as a child No fatigue, neck weakness, difficulty in chewing or swallowing Family History: Neg...Image/MovingImage
39 Fascicular Third Nerve PalsyThe patient is a 76 year old woman who woke one morning unable to see out of her right eye because of ptosis. She came to the Massachusetts General Hospital emergency room and was admitted. Neurological Examination: Right third nerve palsy involving the pupil Ataxia of the left hand on finger-nose t...Image/MovingImage
40 Information Processing in the Visual System: David H. Hubel, Nobel Laureate Physiology or Medicine 1981David H. Hubel is the John Enders University Professor of Neurobiology at Harvard Medical School. Born in Canada of American parents, he grew up in Montreal, graduated from McGill Medical School, and received training in neurology at the Montreal Neurological Institute and Johns Hopkins Hospital. ...Image/MovingImage
41 Supranuclear Paralysis of DowngazeThe patient is a 62 year old man who, on getting out of bed one morning, found his eyes did not open fully. The right eye hardly opened at all and the left just a little. He staggered to the bathroom and started to floss his teeth and dropped a piece of floss on the floor. He felt unsteady bend...Image/MovingImage
42 Fisher's One and a Half SyndromeThis 44 year old woman presented in 1973 with an acute attack of optic neuritis in the right eye that fully recovered after a course of ACTH therapy. In 1991, 18 years later, she developed unsteadiness of gait, "walking like a chicken", stiff legs that jerked spontaneously in bed at night, and num...Image/MovingImage
43 Selective Saccadic PalsyThis case is published courtesy of Scott D.Z. Eggers, M.D., Department of Neurology, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine (1). The patient is a healthy 50 year old woman who underwent otherwise uncomplicated aortic valve replacement for an incidentally discovered ascending aortic aneurysm. Upon awakeni...Image/MovingImage
44 Fisher's One and a Half SyndromeThe patient is a 62 year old right handed man, status post myocardial infarction in 1989 and on Coumadin. In 1993 he presented with a history of three separate TIAs 1. Instantaneous perioral tingling and/or numbness lasting less than 1 minute. 2. Episodic numbness of the right hand and foot lasti...Image/MovingImage
45 Migraine Visual Aura: A discussion with Nobel Laureate David H. HubelI am greatly indebted to the Nobel Laureate, David Hubel for his permission to publish his description of his migraine aura. The recording was made fortuitously at the time that I invited David to the Unit for Neuro-Visual Disorders to record an audio clip describing the experiments in the cat that...Image/MovingImage
46 Paralysis of ConvergenceThe patient is a 25 year old man with a long history of headaches due to hydrocephalus. He carries the following diagnoses: 1. Hydrocephalus 2. Aqueduct stenosis 3. Low grade glioma involving the quadrageminal plate 4. Seizures The patient first came to neurological attention at the age of 12 whe...Image/MovingImage
47 Upbeat NystagmusThe patient is a 36 year old Korean doctor who arrived from Korea in November 1994. On 12/25/94 she developed a painful erythematous eruption along her upper back extending toward her right shoulder. A physician diagnosed herpes zoster and prescribed a five day course of Acyclovir with good resolut...Image/MovingImage
48 Pendular Horizontal OscillationsThis 37 year old woman has had progressive multiple sclerosis (MS) affecting the cerebellum and brainstem for 6 years. Neurological examination: Titubation Dysarthria Incoordination of the extremities Ataxic gait Spastic paraparesis with generalized hyperreflexia and extensor plantar responses. ...Image/MovingImage
49 Supranuclear Paralysis of DowngazeJohn Trojanowski and I published this case in Neurology in 1980.(12) At that time, it was one of the first of five reports in the literature of the pathological localization of lesions in the midbrain that are responsible for selective supranuclear paralysis of downgaze. This case is of particula...Image/MovingImage
50 Ataxic GaitThe patient is a 72 year old woman who presented with a 4 year history of progressive difficulty with balance, frequent falls and unsteadiness walking. She required a cane to steady herself. Past History: Significant for alcohol abuse. In 1980, she came to Boston for a second opinion and was seen...Image/MovingImage
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