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TitleCollection Number And NamePhoto Number
26 When a fossil bone is prepared for removal from the Quarry in a plaster jacket, it is first uncovered and left supported on a narrow matrix pedestal. (June 1961)P1048 James H. Madsen Photograph CollectionP1048n023
27 Second, the more fragile and sometimes fractured fossil bones must be enclosed in a burlap and plaster jacket; which like the shell of an egg protects the contents so that each unit can be safely transported to the laboratory for final preparation and study. (June 1961)P1048 James H. Madsen Photograph CollectionP1048n024
28 These paired, pelvic bones of a large Allosaur are called pubes. They are shown here to illustrate the size of the circular opening at the top, which represents the maximum dimension of the oviduct or birth canal. It appears in this case to have been somewhat close to the diameter of a softball in size. (July 1961)P1048 James H. Madsen Photograph CollectionP1048n025
29 This dorsal rib is singularly diagnostic of the presence of the rare theropod, Ceratosaurus in the C-LDQ, however, numerous other bones of this individual were found over the years.P1048 James H. Madsen Photograph CollectionP1048n026
30 This is an exceptional occurrence of fossil bones in the Quarry, an articulated sequence of midcaudal vertebrae of Ceratosaurus. More commonly the fossil bones of a single individual are scattered over an area up to ten meters or more in diameter.P1048 James H. Madsen Photograph CollectionP1048n027
31 This Allosaurus femur, the upper long bone of the hind leg, as found in place at the Quarry, shows displacement at mid-length. Apparently, this was the result of a small, reverse fault having an approximate displacement of about 12 centimeters. The movement occurred long after the enclosing sediments had become lithified, changed to limestone and shale. (July 1961)P1048 James H. Madsen Photograph CollectionP1048n028
32 As an expedient and to minimize the necessary handling and preparation time; each bone, as practical, is wrapped, nested in paper excelsior, and boxed for transportation from the field to the laboratory. More fragile bones, regardless of size, require the conventional plaster and burlap packaging.P1048 James H. Madsen Photograph CollectionP1048n029
33 This is another unusual series of articulated, caudal vertebrae. These bones belong to the uncommon Diplodocid, sauropod dinosaur, Barosaurus; which is represented as a solitary taxon in the C-LDQ. Single taxa are especially important in a mass burial situation like the C-LDQ, because they provide taphonomic data not available from the remains of multiple, but different sized individuals of the same dinosaur.P1048 James H. Madsen Photograph CollectionP1048n030
34 A caudal vertebra (tail bone) of the sauropod dinosaur, Camarasaurus, as found in place at the Quarry. This particular dinosaur would have been about 55 feet long, almost 12 feet tall at the hips, and perhaps weighing more than fifteen tons in life. An original skeleton of this huge reptile is exhibited in a death pose at the College of Eastern Utah, Prehistoric Museum in the city of Price, Utah. (July 1961)P1048 James H. Madsen Photograph CollectionP1048n031a
35 A femur (thigh bone) of a Camarasaur illustrates the enormous size of this reptile. This bone, like most of the others in the Quarry, was found isolated rather than in close proximity to adjacent bones as they would appear with a complete, articulated skeleton. (July 1961)P1048 James H. Madsen Photograph CollectionP1048n032
36 These are two unrelated bones in place. On the left is an ischium of Barosaurus and on the right an ilium of Allosaurus. (July 1961)P1048 James H. Madsen Photograph CollectionP1048n033
37 Prior to mapping, each bone is carefully identified as to taxa (scientific name) and morphology (elemental name).P1048 James H. Madsen Photograph CollectionP1048n034
38 Most fossil bones are fractured, so must be coated with a preservative, as soon as they are uncovered and allowed to dry, to seal the fossil and fasten the numerous, tiny fragments in place. This step is necessary before the fossils can be safely removed and transported to the laboratory for final preparation and study.P1048 James H. Madsen Photograph CollectionP1048n035
39 These students digging at the Quarry in 1976 are from Foothill Junior College near San Jose, California. They are learning first hand about the careful work required in collecting dinosaur bones. The Cleveland- Lloyd Dinosaur Quarry is often an important out-of-doors classroom for teaching the fundamentals of vertebrate paleontology and field collecting techniques.P1048 James H. Madsen Photograph CollectionP1048n036
40 Any successful excavation of dinosaur bones requires a well-fed crew, and a well-fed crew requires a Master Chef; hence, Chef Pollardo in his field kitchen at the C-LDQ in the summer of 1976.P1048 James H. Madsen Photograph CollectionP1048n037
41 Test holes were carefully dug by hand to determine the vertical and lateral dimension of the fossiliferous unit in the Quarry. Subsequently, drill holes confirmed the suspicion that the bones do not extend very far beyond the confines of the metal buildings that now cover and protect the Quarry. The buildings are an absolute necessity to protect the exposed fossils from both vandalism, the harsh winter weather of east-central Utah, and theft.P1048 James H. Madsen Photograph CollectionP1048n038
42 This may appear to be a careful excavation for fossils. Pot-holing is not an acceptable quarrying procedure, because it complicates the collection of the fossils. Actually this is a test hole dug to determine the depth and extent of the fossiliferous horizon. (June 1960)P1048 James H. Madsen Photograph CollectionP1048n039
43 During the 1960s at Fort Douglas, east of Salt Lake City, Utah was a World War II, army barracks, no longer standing on the upper University of Utah Campus, known as the "Bone Barn". It was the first "home" of the extensive bone inventory collected from the Cleveland-Lloyd Dinosaur Quarry. More than 60% of the original collection remained in Utah after the commitments to supporting institutions were met. These institutions had provided financial support for excavation, preparation, and research to the University of Utah Cooperative Dinosaur Project from 1960 to 1968. (June 1968)P1048 James H. Madsen Photograph CollectionP1048n040
44 The most demanding step in the study of dinosaurs takes place in the preparation laboratory, where a single bone may require more than a hundred hours of intense work before it can be analyzed in detail.P1048 James H. Madsen Photograph CollectionP1048n041
45 Much of the necessary preparation of fossil bones, as demonstrated on this premaxilla of Allosaurus, is done with a miniature air hammer called an AirScribe. The AirScribe is an indispensable tool in the careful preparation of most dinosaur bones.P1048 James H. Madsen Photograph CollectionP1048n042
46 This composite of a medium-sized Allosaur skull required six months of work to fully prepare the fifty or more separate elements of the skull and mandible (lower jaw). It is now in the vertebrate fossil collections of the Utah Museum of Natural History on the University of Utah campus in Salt Lake City, Utah.P1048 James H. Madsen Photograph CollectionP1048n043
47 Here is the backlighted braincase of Camarasaurus, which was projected at 2/3 natural size on a sheet of drawing paper. Next, a sketch would be made noting the complete outline and all features. This sketch would be used by the artist, as a basis for the illustration needed for a scientific publication. The sketch would be reduced 50% for a printed size of 1/3 scale. (May 1984)P1048 James H. Madsen Photograph CollectionP1048n044
48 The fused caudal vertebrae and a chevron of Allosaurus show extensive pathology involving the transverse process of the right side. Traumas to the tails of dinosaurs are among the more common pathologies.P1048 James H. Madsen Photograph CollectionP1048n045
49 Cast replicas are carefully made of each original bone to be displayed in this museum exhibit, which is seen here under preparation. Utilization of molds and casts allows the original bones to be completely accessible for study and unharmed by the drilling often needed to present them in a free-standing, mounted skeleton.P1048 James H. Madsen Photograph CollectionP1048n046
50 There is a dramatic size range in the skeletons of the Cleveland-Lloyd Allosaurs. On the left are two claws from the forehand (manus), above on the right are premaxillae, tooth bearing bones of the upper jaw, and below caudal vertebrae from the distal third of the tail. The small vertebra is about two inches (five centimeters) long. The smallest Allosaur in the C-LDQ wasunder ten feet in length, the largest nearly thirty five feet long.P1048 James H. Madsen Photograph CollectionP1048n047
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