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1 Retino-choroidal Vessels or Optociliary veins or ciliary shuntOverview of retino-choroidal collaterals, which are potential telangiectatic connections between the retina and choroidal circulation. Although sometimes called "shunts", these collaterals are between the retinal venous circulation and the choroidal venous circulation.Text
2 Basal EncephalocelesText
3 Basic HeadachePresentation covering an overview of headache and migraine.Text
4 Dissection of the carotid arteryImage
5 Anterior ischemic optic neuropathyPPT describing Anterior Ischemic Optic Neuropathy (AION). Covers clinical signs, such as monocular vision loss, swollen nerve, and visual field defects, as well as risk factors.Text
6 Cone DystrophyPPT covering Cone Dystrophy - An inherited degeneration that presents between 10 - 30 years of age. Symptoms are decreased visual acuity, poor color vision, and sometimes light sensitivity.Text
7 MELAS and RPMELAS; Mitochondrial Encephalopathy with Lactic Acidosis, Stroke and Pigmentary Changes in retina-associated with a retinal dystrophy. This 53 year old man had seizures, encephalopathy and lactic acidosis typical of MELAS. His fundus examination showed granularity and some slight pigmentary changes ...Text
8 Leber's Hereditary Optic NeuropathyText
9 Hydroxychloroquine Maculopathy (Plaquenil)An overview of Chloroquine Maculopathy.Text
10 Mimics of AtrophyText
11 Nutritional amblyopiaExample of patient with amblyopia with nutritional causes.Text
12 Optic nerve tumors benign and malignantDiscussion of optic nerve tumors including meningioma and glioma.Text
13 Normal optic discOverview of the structure and function of the normal optic disc.Text
14 Shaken Baby SyndromeText
15 Retinitis pigmentosa disease of rodsDiscussion of retinitis pigmentosa which is a retinal/choroidal degeneration caused by various genetic defects.Text
16 Stages of PapilledemaText
17 Stargardt's DiseaseDiscussion of Stargardt's disease, an inherited maculopathy which frequently presents with a loss of central vision.Text
18 Documenting the Neuro-ophthalmic Patient: External PhotographyDescription of documenting the neuro-ophthalmic patient using external photography. This covers pupils and extra ocular muscles.
19 The 3 step Test: Looking for a 4th nerve palsyDescription of the three step test (3 step test) used when looking for a 4th nerve palsy.
20 Visually Evoked PotentialsDetailed explanation of visually evoked potentials. The terms visually evoked potential (VEP), visually evoked response (VER) and visually evoked cortical potential (VECP) are equivalent. They refer to electrical potentials, initiated by brief visual stimuli, which are recorded from the scalp overl...Text
21 The Electro-oculogram: Clinical ApplicationsThe electrooculogram measures the potential that exists between the cornea and Bruch's membrane at the back of the eye. The potential produces a dipole field with the cornea approximately 5 millivolts positive compared to the back of the eye, in a normally illuminated room. Although the origin of th...Text
22 The Electroretinogram and Electro-oculogram: Clinical ApplicationsThe global or full-field electroretinogram (ERG) is a mass electrical response of the retina to photic stimulation. The ERG is a test used worldwide to assess the status of the retina in eye diseases in human patients and in laboratory animals used as models of retinal disease.Text
23 The Multifocal Electroretinogram: Clinical ApplicationsThe most important development in ERGs is the multifocal ERG (mfERG). Erich Sutter adapted the mathematical sequences called binary m-sequences creating a program that can extract hundreds of focal ERGs from a single electrical signal. This system allows assessment of ERG activity in small areas of ...Text
24 Clover-leaf Visual Field DefectsDescription of clover-leaf visual field defects.
25 Fluoresein AngiographyComprehensive description of using fluoresein angiography in examinations.
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