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1 Myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) - antibody optic neuritisThis is an illustrated guide to the clinical diagnosis of myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG)-antibody optic neuritis.; ; Myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) is a glycoprotein on the surface of myelin and is found exclusively in the central nervous system (CNS). MOG likely mediates a com...Bryce Buchowicz, MD, Neuro-ophthalmology Fellow, Department of Ophthalmology, Emory University School of Medicine; Valérie Biousse, MD, Cyrus H. Stoner Professor of Ophthalmology, Professor of Ophthalmology and Neurology, Departments of Ophthalmology and Neurology, Emory University School of Medici...
2 NeurosarcoidosisThis is an illustrated guide to the clinical diagnosis of neurosarcoidosis. Sarcoidosis is a chronic systemic inflammatory disorder characterized by non-caseating granulomas. It can affect multiple organ systems including the lungs, skin, orbit, and brain. When there is central nervous system (CNS) ...Bryce Buchowicz, MD, Neuro-ophthalmology Fellow, Department of Ophthalmology, Emory University School of Medicine; Valérie Biousse, MD, Cyrus H. Stoner Professor of Ophthalmology, Professor of Ophthalmology and Neurology, Departments of Ophthalmology and Neurology, Emory University School of Medici...
3 Funduscopic Findings of Acute Central Retinal Artery OcclusionA 59-year-old man was referred for assessment acute vision loss in the right eye. His examination showed: best-corrected visual acuity: light perception OD, 20/20 OS; pupils: Relative afferent pupillary defect OD; color vision: unable to visualize control plate OD, 14/14 OS correct Ishihara plates. ...David B. Enfield, MD, Ophthalmology Resident, Department of Ophthalmology, Emory University School of Medicine; Valérie Biousse, MD, Cyrus H. Stoner Professor of Ophthalmology, Professor of Ophthalmology and Neurology, Departments of Ophthalmology and Neurology, Emory University School of Medicine
4 Toxoplasmic chorioretinitis with unilateral disc edemaA 53-year-old man had a history of high myopia and a seronegative spondyloarthropathy treated with immunosuppressive agents. He presented with mild, painless vision loss in his right eye. His examination showed findings of a right anterior optic neuropathy: visual acuity: 20/20 OD (right eye), 20/20...Rahul A. Sharma, MD, MPH, Neuro-ophthalmology Fellow, Department of Ophthalmology, Emory University School of Medicine; Nancy J. Newman, LeoDelle Jolley Chair in Ophthalmology, Professor of Ophthalmology and Neurology, Instructor of Neurosurgery, Departments of Ophthalmology, Neurology and Neurosurg...
5 Previous Branch Retinal Artery OcclusionThis is a typical case of an old branch retinal artery occlusion in a 64 year old woman presenting with persistent monocular vision loss. She had sudden onset of painless vision loss in the inferior field of her left eye approximately one year prior. Her past medical history was significant for atri...Benson S. Chen, MBChB FRACP,Neuro-ophthalmology fellow, Department of Ophthalmology, Emory University School of Medicine; Valérie Biousse, MD, Cyrus H. Stoner Professor of Ophthalmology, Professor of Ophthalmology and Neurology, Departments of Ophthalmology and Neurology, Emory University School of...
6 Homonymous Hemianopia Secondary to an Intracranial Bleed from an Arteriovenous MalformationThis case demonstrates a homonymous hemianopia resulting from hemorrhage secondary to a ruptured intracranial arteriovenous malformation (AVM), providing grounds for illustration and discussion of the correlations between localization of this lesion on cerebral imaging and resultant visual field and...Lauren Hudson, MD, PhD, Ophthalmology resident, Department of Ophthalmology, Emory University School of Medicine; Valérie Biousse, MD, Cyrus H. Stoner Professor of Ophthalmology, Professor of Ophthalmology and Neurology, Departments of Ophthalmology and Neurology, Emory University School of Medicin...
7 Optic nerve hypoplasiaThis is an illustrated guide to the clinical diagnosis of optic nerve hypoplasia. Optic nerve hypoplasia (ONH) is the most common congenital optic nerve anomaly, with an estimated incidence of 1 in 2287 live births. It may present unilaterally or bilaterally. It is seen in isolation or in associati...Rahul A. Sharma, MD, MPH, Neuro-ophthalmology Fellow, Department of Ophthalmology, Emory University School of Medicine; Jason H. Peragallo, MD, Assistant Professor of Ophthalmology, Department of Ophthalmology; Valérie Biousse, MD, Cyrus H. Stoner Professor of Ophthalmology, Professor of Ophthalmol...
8 Superior segmental optic nerve hypoplasiaThis is a case of superior segmental optic nerve hypoplasia in a woman with a history of maternal diabetes. A 25 year-old woman noticed a visual field defect in her right eye. Her examination showed: visual acuity: 20/20 OD, 20/20 OS; pupils: trace relative afferent pupillary defect OD; color visi...Naa Naamuah M. Tagoe MBChB, FWACS, FGCS, Consultant Ophthalmologist, Training and Research Coordinator, Lions International Eye Centre, Korle Bu Teaching Hospital, Accra, Ghana; Rahul A. Sharma, MD, MPH, Neuro-ophthalmology Fellow, Department of Ophthalmology, Emory University School of Medicine; Va...
9 Enophthalmos from breast cancer metastasis to the orbitRight painful ophthalmoplegia with right enophthalmos secondary to breast cancer metastasis to the right orbit.Valerie Biousse, MD; Emory Eye Center, Atlanta, Georgia
10 Toxic Retinopathy: Deferoxamine ToxicityNumber of Figures and legend for each: 6 figures Figure 1: Goldmann perimetry showing large cecocentral scotomas in both eyes Figure 2: Fundus photograph of the right eye demonstrating hypopigmentation of the peripapillary and perifoveal retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) with subfoveal yellow lesions...Will Pearce, MD, Emory Eye Center Atlanta, Georgia; Valerie Biousse, MD, Emory Eye Center Atlanta, Georgia
11 Normal retinal anatomyNormal posterior vitreous, retinal and chroroidal anatomy (pictures, fluorescein angiography and optical coherence tomography).  Figure 1: Normal fundus photograph of the left eye o a : Optic disc and fovea o b : Foveal reflex in young patients o c : Macular and foveal areas share the same center...Rabih Hage, MD, Emory Eye Center Atlanta Georgia; Valérie Biousse, MD Departments of Ophthalmology and Neurology, Emory University School of Medicine
12 Ocular Fundus ExaminationReview of various techniques of ocular fundus examination, including direct ophthalmoscopy, binocular indirect ophthalmoscopy, slit lamp binocular indirect ophthalmoscopy, and fundus photography. Advantages and disadvantages of each technique are discussed.Devin D. Mackay, M.D. Emory Eye Center Atlanta, Georgia; Valérie Biousse, MD Departments of Ophthalmology and Neurology, Emory University School of Medicine
13 Radiologic Appearance of Unilateral Sphenoid Wing Hypoplasia in Neurofibromatosis Type IMRI features of greater wing sphenoid hypoplasia in the setting of neurofibromatosis type 1. - Figure 1 : Orbital MRI with contrast showing right greater sphenoid wing hypoplasia. The lack of bone tissue leads to herniation of the right temporal lobe into the orbit, pushing forward the orbital conte...Samuel Bidot, MD, Emory Eye Center Atlanta, Georgia; Amit M. Saindane, MD, Emory Eye Center Atlanta, Georgia; Valérie Biousse, MD Departments of Ophthalmology and Neurology, Emory University School of Medicine
14 Occipital Pyogenic Abscess with Homonymous HemianopiaThis is a case of right occipital abscess with a left homonymous hemianopia. Number of Figures and legend for each: 8 figures Figure 1: Humphrey visual fields: Dense left homonymous hemianopia Figure 2: T2-weighted axial MRI : Round, hyperintense lesion (yellow arrow) in the right occipital lobe sur...Rabih Hage, MD, Emory Eye Center Atlanta Georgia; Valérie Biousse, MD Departments of Ophthalmology and Neurology, Emory University School of Medicine
15 Rathke's Cleft Cyst Apoplexy with Junctional ScotomaMRI features of Rathke's cleft cyst apoplexy. - Figure 1 : Humphrey visual fields at initial presentation - Figure 2 : Brain MRI without contrast at initial presentation - Figure 3 : Brain MRI with contrast at initial presentation - Figure 4 : Postoperative Humphrey visual fieldsSamuel Bidot, MD, Emory Eye Center Atlanta, Georgia; Amit M. Saindane, MD, Emory Eye Center Atlanta, Georgia; Valérie Biousse, MD Departments of Ophthalmology and Neurology, Emory University School of Medicine
16 Internal Carotid Artery / Posterior Communicating Artery Aneurysm with Third Nerve Palsy Shown on CT AngiogramInternal Carotid Artery / Posterior Communicating Artery Aneurysm with Third Nerve Palsy Shown on CT Angiogram ; anatomic description of vascular and bony findings on the CTA. - Figure 1 : 51 year-old man complaining of painful binocular diplopia. Orange arrows indicate the direction of gaze. In p...Samuel Bidot, MD, Emory Eye Center Atlanta, Georgia; Amit M. Saindane, MD, Emory Eye Center Atlanta, Georgia; Valérie Biousse, MD Departments of Ophthalmology and Neurology, Emory University School of Medicine
17 Anatomy of the Ocular FundusA review of normal features of the ocular fundus. Fundus photography using various techniques illustrate anatomic features of the ocular fundus. - Figure 1 : A) Color fundus photograph of the left optic disc and peripapillary retina showing a normal optic disc, retinal arteries, retinal veins, and...Devin D. Mackay, M.D. Emory Eye Center Atlanta, Georgia; Valérie Biousse, MD Departments of Ophthalmology and Neurology, Emory University School of Medicine
18 Posterior Circulation Infarctions Secondary to a Post Traumatic Vertebral Artery DissectionA case of a young man with a vertebral artery dissection that caused multiple posterior circulation brain infarcts. Images from an MRI of the brain, digital subtraction angiography, and Humphrey visual fields are included. Figure 1 : Humphrey visual fields showed a right homonymous hemianopia with ...Devin D. Mackay, M.D. Emory Eye Center Atlanta, Georgia; Valérie Biousse, MD Departments of Ophthalmology and Neurology, Emory University School of Medicine
19 Ocular Hypoperfusion From Severe Internal Carotid Artery Stenosis68 year-old man complaining of mildly decreased vision OD with fluctuation of vision throughout the day. Fluorescein angiography shows delayed choroidal and retinal fillings, suggesting hypoperfusion of the right eye.Samuel Bidot, MD, Emory Eye Center Atlanta, Georgia; Amit M. Saindane, MD, Emory Eye Center Atlanta, Georgia; Valérie Biousse, MD Departments of Ophthalmology and Neurology, Emory University School of Medicine
20 Terson syndrome with cranial nerve 3 palsy due to subarachnoid hemorrhage from arteriovenous malformation and aneurysmal ruptureA case of Terson syndrome due to AVM and posteral cerebral aneurysm. The patient developed a left CN3 palsy due to hematoma involving the left midbrain. Figure 1 : External photograph of right eye demonstrates blunted red reflex secondary to vitreous hemorrhage Figure 2 : External photograph of lef...Joshua Levinson, MD, Emory Eye Center Atlanta, Georgia; Valérie Biousse, MD Departments of Ophthalmology and Neurology, Emory University School of Medicine
21 Sellar Aneurysm With Chiasmal CompressionThis is a case of aneurysm of the internal carotid artery, invading the sella and complicated by chiasmal compression and bitemporal hemianopia. Figure 1 : Humphrey visual fields (gray scale and pattern deviations) Figure 2a : T1-weighted axial brain MRI (1): well defined circular intracerebral mass...Rabih Hage, MD, Emory Eye Center Atlanta Georgia; Valérie Biousse, MD Departments of Ophthalmology and Neurology, Emory University School of Medicine
22 Sturge-Weber syndromeA case of Sturge-Weber syndrome (Encephalotrigeminal angiomatosis) with angiomas that involve the leptomeninges, and the skin of the ipsilateral hemiface, associated with congenital glaucoma in the same eye. Various illustrations are included to demonstrate the port wine stain, enlarged optic nerve ...Supharat Jariyakosol, MD, Emory Eye Center Atlanta Georgia; Valérie Biousse, MD Departments of Ophthalmology and Neurology, Emory University School of Medicine
23 Terson Syndrome and Subarachnoid HemorrhageA case of Terson syndrome resulting with subarachnoid hemorrhage and right vitreous hemorrhage resulting from a left pericallosal artery aneurysm. Figure 1 : External photograph of right eye demonstrates blunted red reflex secondary to vitreous hemorrhage Figure 2 : External photograph of left eye d...Joshua Levinson, MD, Emory Eye Center Atlanta, Georgia; Valérie Biousse, MD Departments of Ophthalmology and Neurology, Emory University School of Medicine
24 Cerebral Venous VascularizationMRV and CTV scan imaging of the brain veins. Figure 1 : Overview. MRV with contrast Figure 1A. Right postero-lateral view. Figure 1B. Sagittal view. Figure 2 : Dural sinuses. Superior endocranial view. CTV. Figure 3 : Dural sinuses. Sagittal endocranial view. CTV. Figure 4 : Dural sinuses. Right an...Samuel Bidot, MD, Emory Eye Center Atlanta, Georgia; Amit M. Saindane, MD, Emory Eye Center Atlanta, Georgia; Valérie Biousse, MD Departments of Ophthalmology and Neurology, Emory University School of Medicine
25 Anatomy of the Trigeminal NerveMRI and CT scan imaging of the trigeminal nerve and its 3 divisions. Figure 1 : trigeminal nerve. Overview Figure 2 : trigeminal nuclei Figure 3 : trigeminal root. Cisternal segment. Figure 3A. FIESTA axial image through midpons. Figure 3B. T2 coronal image through prepontine cistern Figure 4 : trig...Samuel Bidot, MD, Emory Eye Center Atlanta, Georgia; Amit M. Saindane, MD, Emory Eye Center Atlanta, Georgia; Valérie Biousse, MD Departments of Ophthalmology and Neurology, Emory University School of Medicine
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