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1 Retinal EmboliTemporary loss of vision in one eye, termed transient monocular blindness (TMB), is the most important visual symptom of arteriosclerotic vascular disease, arteritis and states of altered coagulability and thrombocytosis. In most patients, the visual disturbance during each individual attack of ...Image/MovingImage
2 Migraine / PET StudyIn December 1994 the New England Journal of Medicine published a remarkable paper Bilateral Spreading Cerebral Hypoperfusion during Spontaneous Migraine Headache. Roger P. Woods, Marco Iacoboni and John C. Mazziotta. which is reproduced in part, and accompanied by a video illustration. Courtesy of J...Image/MovingImage
3 Congenital NystagmusThis young boy has oculocutaneous albinism. In 1979 he presented for evaluation of oscillations of his eyes present since birth. He had no head turn or head tremor. Diagnosis: Albinism Congenital sensory nystagmus Ocular Albinism: Infants with albinism of all types are typically slow to see, ofte...Image/MovingImage
4 Supranuclear Paralysis of UpgazeThe patient is a 32 year old man who was admitted as an emergency with severe headache and papilledema. On examination he had signs of the Pretectal Syndrome. • Bilateral lid retraction in primary gaze - Collier's sign • Supranuclear paralysis of upgaze (saccades and pursuit) • Full horizon...Image/MovingImage
5 Bilateral Sixth Nerve PalsyThe patient is a 60 year old woman who consulted her ophthalmologist with a chief complaint of double vision looking to the left. He diagnosed of a left sixth nerve palsy. No investigations were done. Two years later she complained of diplopia looking to the right. A diagnosis of bilateral six...Image/MovingImage
6 Pseudo-Internculear OphthalmoplegiaThis 32 year old man had the acute onset of double vision followed very quickly by a drooping of the left eyelid. Past History: Negative for any previous episode of double vision No history of strabismus as a child No fatigue, neck weakness, difficulty in chewing or swallowing Family History: Neg...Image/MovingImage
7 Opsoclonus -- In the DarkN/AImage/MovingImage
8 Pseudo-Internuclear OphthalmoplegiaIn 1969 this 54 year old man presented with a one month history of blurry vision which started suddenly one afternoon. He said he was "just not focusing" and he saw two images when he "relaxed his sight". He could see clearly covering one eye. Initially, the difficulty in focusing occurred la...Image/MovingImage
9 Congenital NystagmusThis child was noted to have oscillations of the eyes in infancy and was given a diagnosis of congenital nystagmus.Image/MovingImage
10 Bilateral Internuclear OphthalmoplegiaThis case was reported by Cogan DG and Wray SH. Internuclear ophthalmoplegia as an early sign of brain tumor. Neurology 1970; 20:629-633. The patient is Case 1. He is a 4 ½ year old boy whose parents noted that the right eye had been "drifting" for four months. On examination the only signific...Image/MovingImage
11 Paroxysmal Skew DeviationIn 1970 I saw this unique case with Dr. Cogan. The patient is a 60 year old hypertensive woman with a ten year history of intermittent vertical double vision and oscillopsia. Neurological examination between attacks of diplopia showed: Visual acuity 20/25 OU Visual fields, pupils and fundus exami...Image/MovingImage
12 Benign Essential BlepharospasmPatient is a 55 year old woman functionally blind from severe benign essential blepharospasm. She presented with frequent blinking.continuous spasms of eye closure and great difficulty opening her eyes i.e. blepharospasm associated "apraxia of eyelid opening". Symptomatic Inquiry negative for...Image/MovingImage
13 Ocular DippingThe patient is a 32 year old woman with juvenile diabetes mellitus. She collapsed at home and was rushed to the emergency room where a diagnosis of a locked-in syndrome was made. The term Locked-in Syndrome (LiS) was coined in 1966 by Plum and Posner for a condition with the following criteria: 1....Image/MovingImage
14 Bilateral Sixth Nerve PalsyThis patient was known to be a chronic alcoholic. He presented with acute onset of unsteadiness walking which he attributed to double vision. He was unable to give an accurate history and was disoriented for time and place. Neurological examination: Significant for impaired memory and cognitive ...Image/MovingImage
15 Fisher's One and a Half SyndromeThis 28 year old woman had severe multiple sclerosis with a spastic paraparesis due to a lesion of the spinal cord. She was admitted to the Intensive Care Unit complaining of dizziness and double vision. Neuro-ophthalmologic examination: Visual acuity 20/30 OU Pupils, visual fields and fundi normal ...Image/MovingImage
16 Nuclear Third Nerve PalsyThe following case is the first patient I saw with a nuclear third nerve palsy. The patient is a 52 year old man with hypertension and hyperlipidemia. He awoke one morning unable to open his eyes. To walk he tilted his head backwards and looked down. He came to the emergency room of the Massach...Image/MovingImage
17 Congenital Nystagmus; Latent NystagmusThis little girl has had nystagmus since birth. She has the classical constellation of signs, initially diagnosed as congenital motor nystagmus with: • Horizontal jerk nystagmus • A slight head turn to the right to place the eyes in the null position • Latent nystagmus • Inability to superi...Image/MovingImage
18 Neonatal OpsoclonusThis child was one of the first cases of opsoclonus that I saw with Dr. Cogan in the early 1970's. He carried a diagnosis of strabismus with deviation of the left eye. In this child, opsoclonus occurred as a transient phenomenon in an otherwise healthy infant. For a complete overview of opsoclonus i...Image/MovingImage
19 Neonatal OpsoclonusThis child was one of the first cases of opsoclonus that I saw with Dr. Cogan in the early 1970's. The baby is a unique case in that in addition to neonatal opsoclonus with the characteristic multidirectional conjugate back-to-back saccades, periods of large amplitude upbeat nystagmus also occurred....Image/MovingImage
20 Parainfectious OpsoclonusThis child was one of a group of children with opsoclonus that I saw with Dr. Cogan in the early 1970's. This boy carries the diagnosis of parainfectious brainstem encephalitis. In the absence of myoclonus, myoclonic encephalopathy often referred to as dancing eyes and dancing feet was ruled out. ...Image/MovingImage
21 Fisher's One and a Half SyndromeThis young patient presented with double vision and was found to have on examination the classical findings of Fisher's one-and-a-half syndrome which are: • Right internuclear ophthalmoplegia on gaze left with adduction weakness OD • Right horizontal gaze paresis with gaze evoked nystagmus • F...Image/MovingImage
22 Ocular Motor ApraxiaThis elderly patient was referred to the Movement Disorder Clinic for evaluation of abnormal head thrust movements when asked to look on command to the right or to the left. His random eye movements were full vertically and horizontally. Diagnosis: Acquired Ocular Motor Apraxia ...Image/MovingImage
23 Jaw WinkingThis little boy was born with congenital ptosis of the left eyelid, which "flicked up and down" when his jaw moved. The pediatrician made a diagnosis of the Marcus-Gunn jaw winking phenomenon was made. The first case of this unusual synkinesis between the pterygoid muscles and the levator musc...Image/MovingImage
24 Downbeat Nystagmus - Periodic Alternating NystagmusThis patient carries a diagnosis of multiple sclerosis.Image/MovingImage
25 Hemifacial SpasmThis patient is an atypical case of hemifacial spasm because he is a young college student only 29 years of age. Hemifacial spasm usually develops in the fifth and sixth decade of life and affects women more than men. It often begins insidiously in the orbicularis oculi muscle in the early stage...Image/MovingImage
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