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1 Tangent Screen Testing Visual FieldDescription of tangent screen testing.
2 Tunnel Vision on Tangent Screen TestingDescription of tunnel vision and tangent screen testing.
3 Spiral and Stellate Visual Fields Non-physiologic VariantsDescription of testing the spiral and stellate visual fields.
4 Tangent Screen Recording ChartThe tangent screen recording chart.
5 Fluoresein AngiographyComprehensive description of using fluoresein angiography in examinations.
6 Near Reflex and AccomodationDescription of testing the near reflex and accomodation.
7 Clover-leaf Visual Field DefectsDescription of clover-leaf visual field defects.
8 Documenting the Neuro-ophthalmic Patient: External PhotographyDescription of documenting the neuro-ophthalmic patient using external photography. This covers pupils and extra ocular muscles.
9 The 3 step Test: Looking for a 4th nerve palsyDescription of the three step test (3 step test) used when looking for a 4th nerve palsy.
10 The Electro-oculogram: Clinical ApplicationsThe electrooculogram measures the potential that exists between the cornea and Bruch's membrane at the back of the eye. The potential produces a dipole field with the cornea approximately 5 millivolts positive compared to the back of the eye, in a normally illuminated room. Although the origin of th...Text
11 The Electroretinogram and Electro-oculogram: Clinical ApplicationsThe global or full-field electroretinogram (ERG) is a mass electrical response of the retina to photic stimulation. The ERG is a test used worldwide to assess the status of the retina in eye diseases in human patients and in laboratory animals used as models of retinal disease.Text
12 The Multifocal Electroretinogram: Clinical ApplicationsThe most important development in ERGs is the multifocal ERG (mfERG). Erich Sutter adapted the mathematical sequences called binary m-sequences creating a program that can extract hundreds of focal ERGs from a single electrical signal. This system allows assessment of ERG activity in small areas of ...Text
13 Visually Evoked PotentialsDetailed explanation of visually evoked potentials. The terms visually evoked potential (VEP), visually evoked response (VER) and visually evoked cortical potential (VECP) are equivalent. They refer to electrical potentials, initiated by brief visual stimuli, which are recorded from the scalp overl...Text
14 Tilted DiscsShort PowerPoint discussion of tilted discs with illustrations and images.Image
15 Optic Disc pallor pseudo and realDiscussion of the causes of optic disc pallor.Text
16 Papilledema 2013Discussion of papilledema, the swelling due to increased pressure.Text
17 Optic Disc: Anatomy, Variants, Unusual discsDiscussion of viewing the optic disc. Includes development of direct ophthalmoscope. Covers normal optic disc and nerve fiber; nerve fiber loss and defects; cilioretinal arteries; venous anomolies; papilledema; pseudopapilledema; myopic disc; hyperoptic disc; little red discs; megallopapilla; myelin...Text
18 Glaucoma: the basicsGlaucoma is the most common optic neuropathy. Progressive cupping of the optic disc due to increased intraocular pressure together with visual field abnormalities and local disc susceptibility factors characterize this neuropathy. This PowerPoint lecture covers the basics of Glaucoma and includes ma...Text
19 Retino-choroidal Vessels or Optociliary veins or ciliary shuntOverview of retino-choroidal collaterals, which are potential telangiectatic connections between the retina and choroidal circulation. Although sometimes called "shunts", these collaterals are between the retinal venous circulation and the choroidal venous circulation.Text
20 Basic HeadachePresentation covering an overview of headache and migraine.Text
21 Cone DystrophyPPT covering Cone Dystrophy - An inherited degeneration that presents between 10 - 30 years of age. Symptoms are decreased visual acuity, poor color vision, and sometimes light sensitivity.Text
22 MELAS and RPMELAS; Mitochondrial Encephalopathy with Lactic Acidosis, Stroke and Pigmentary Changes in retina-associated with a retinal dystrophy. This 53 year old man had seizures, encephalopathy and lactic acidosis typical of MELAS. His fundus examination showed granularity and some slight pigmentary changes ...Text
23 Hydroxychloroquine Maculopathy (Plaquenil)An overview of Chloroquine Maculopathy.Text
24 Nutritional amblyopiaExample of patient with amblyopia with nutritional causes.Text
25 Optic nerve tumors benign and malignantDiscussion of optic nerve tumors including meningioma and glioma.Text
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