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TitleDescriptionType
1 3-33b - Papilledema StagesGrading Papilledema: Stage 2 = Elevation of the disc margin 360 degrees. Since the blood vessels at the disc margin are not swollen or obscured, this disc could be mistaken for pseudo-papilledema.Image
2 Bilateral iris colobomasColoboma literally means a "gap"-and can be used to describe any fissure, hole, or gap in the eye. The term most often is used to refer to a congenital gap in the disc, retina, the choroid, and the iris. Colobomas occur because the embryonic fissure fails to fuse. Since the fissure closure begins in...Image/StillImage
3 See-saw Nystagmus MRI 1MRI; See-saw NystagmusImage
4 See-saw Nystagmus MRI 2MRI; See-saw NystagmusImage
5 3-65 - Shunt Vessels (Glaucoma)Chronic end-stage glaucoma produces high pressure that interferes with venous drainage from the disc and broad smooth venous collaterals drain the disc centrifugally to the disc margin where they drain.Image
6 3-64a - Shunt Vessels (CRVO)This man with a chronic CRVO and retino-choroidal collaterals developed AION and his collaterals disappeared. CRVO with retinochoroidal collaterals is almost always associated with multiple peripheral dot and blot hemorrhages as well as nerve fiber layer infarcts of various ages. Notice the retino-c...Image
7 3-4 - Tilted DiscTilted discs are normal variants caused by oblique insertion of the optic nerve to the globe. They can be and frequently are mistaken for papilledema. In this case the superior edge of the disc is tilted and appears elevated. This disc exhibits a nasal inferior tilt.Image
8 3-66a - Shunt Vessels (post-papilledema)The retino-choroidal collaterals seen with chronic papilledema begin with a "Hairnet" of telangiectasias that gradually winnow down to one or more large collateral tortuous draining channel. The presence of these vessels is evidence of long standing disc swelling. When the CSF pressure is lowered, t...Image
9 3-66d - Shunt Vessels (post-papilledema)The retino-choroidal collaterals seen with chronic papilledema begin with a "Hairnet" of telangiectasias that gradually winnow down to one or more large collateral tortuous draining channel. The presence of these vessels is evidence of long standing disc swelling. When the CSF pressure is lowered, t...Image
10 2-4a - Disc AnatomyThe optic disc appearance is determined by: the size of the eye, the size of the scleral canal, how the nerve is inserted into the globe, the appearance of the lamina cribrosa, where myelination stops, and what is left behind in normal development. Even though this is a disc with a very large cup, i...Image
11 2-53b - Venous PulsationsOn the disc, look for spontaneous venous pulsations. Spontaneous venous pulsations can be seen in the large trunks of veins at the level of the disc margin. They are normally present and seen in 37-90% of normals -- depending on the experience of the examiner and the shape of the disc. The spontaneo...Image
12 2-7a - Disc AnatomyThe optic disc appearance is determined by: the size of the eye, the size of the scleral canal, how the nerve is inserted into the globe, the appearance of the lamina cribrosa, where myelination stops, and what is left behind in normal development. Even though this is a disc with a very large cup, i...Image
13 2-53a - Venous PulsationsOn the disc, look for spontaneous venous pulsations. Spontaneous venous pulsations can be seen in the large trunks of veins at the level of the disc margin. They are normally present and seen in 37-90% of normals -- depending on the experience of the examiner and the shape of the disc. The spontaneo...Image
14 2-37b - Vascular FeaturesWhen looking at the disc, the central retinal artery and vein should be visible. The central retinal artery is usually slightly narrower than the vein. When the central retinal artery goes though the lamina cribrosa, the artery becomes smaller because of diminution of the muscular layer and loss of ...Image
15 4-54a -Optic Neuropathy, Ischemic: PosteriorImage
16 4-52b - Dominant Optic NeuropathyA son presented with bilateral optic atrophy of unknown etiology after he failed a school visual exam. When looking for dominant optic atrophy, look at the parents. Mother was examined to find similar kind of atrophy. 4-52a mother, 4-52b son.Image
17 Stage 2 - PapilledemaImage
18 Shunt Vessel MeningiomaRETINO-CHOROIDAL (OPTO-CILIARY) COLLATERAL VESSELS: (also known as Retinal-choroidal venous collaterals, opticociliary veins or ciliary shunt vessels) Retino-choroidal collaterals are potential telangiectatic connections between the retina and choroidal circulation. Although sometimes called "shunts...Image
19 3-60b - MeningiomaThis 35 year old woman presented with slowly progressive loss of central acuity to 20/30. 3-60a: Her visual field shows progressive restriction over time. 3-60b: Her disc was chronically swollen, with refractile bodies on the disc surface. 3-60d: The CT axial scan showed an enlarged calcified optic...Image
20 Shunt Vessel Meningioma - MRIMeningiomas block venous egress and open potential venous channels known as retinochoroidal (optociliary) collateral vein. This meningioma extends from the back of the globe through the optic canal.Image
21 3-56a - SarcoidImage
22 3-3 - Bergmeister PapillaImage
23 2-6a - Little Red DiscsImage
24 3-59c - GliomaThis 45-year-old man presented with vision loss in his right eye; his examination showed severe disc swelling in this eye and vision loss on visual field testing (3-59a). MRI with fat saturation and enhancement and MRI with T2 signals also confirm an enlarged optic nerve. (3-59c) Excisional biopsy o...Image
25 4-54b - Optic Neuropathy, Ischemic: PosteriorImage
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