Nanomaterial based detection and degradation of biological and chemical contaminants in a microfluidic system

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Publication Type dissertation
School or College College of Engineering
Department Mechanical Engineering
Author Jayamohan, Harikrishnan
Title Nanomaterial based detection and degradation of biological and chemical contaminants in a microfluidic system
Date 2015-08
Description Monitoring and remediation of environmental contaminants (biological and chemical) form the crux of global water resource management. There is an extant need to develop point-of-use, low-power, low-cost tools that can address this problem effectively with min­ imal environmental impact. Nanotechnology and microfluidics have made enormous ad­ vances during the past decade in the area of biosensing and environmental remediation. The "marriage" of these two technologies can effectively address some of the above-mentioned needs [1]. In this dissertation, nanomaterials were used in conjunction with microfluidic techniques to detect and degrade biological and chemical pollutants. In the first project, a point-of-use sensor was developed for detection of trichloroethylene (TCE) from water. A self-organizing nanotubular titanium dioxide (TNA) synthesized by electrochemical anodization and functionalized with photocatalytically deposited platinum (Pt/TNA) was applied to the detection. The morphology and crystallinity of the Pt/TNA sensor was characterized using field emission scanning electron microscope, energy dis­ persive x-ray spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction. The sensor could detect TCE in the concentrations ranging from 10 to 1000 ppm. The room-temperature operation capability of the sensor makes it less power intensive and can potentially be incorporated into a field-based sensor. In the second part, TNA synthesized on a foil was incorporated into a flow-based microfluidic format and applied to degradation of a model pollutant, methylene blue. The system was demonstrated to have enhanced photocatalytic performance at higher flow rates (50-200 ^L/min) over the same microfluidic format with TiO2 nanoparticulate (commercial P25) catalyst. The microfluidic format with TNA catalyst was able to achieve 82% fractional conversion of 18 mM methylene blue in comparison to 55% in the case of the TiO2 nanoparticulate layer at a flow rate of 200 L/min. The microfluidic device was fabricated using non-cleanroom-based methods, making it suitable for economical large-scale manufacture. A computational model of the microfluidic format was developed in COMSOL Multiphysics® finite element software to evaluate the effect of diffusion coefficient and rate constant on the photocatalytic performance. To further enhance the photocatalytic performance of the microfluidic device, TNA synthesized on a mesh was used as the catalyst. The new system was shown to have enhanced photocatalytic performance in comparison to TNA on a foil. The device was then employed in the inactivation of E. coli O157:H7 at different flow rates and light intensities (100, 50, 20, 10 mW/cm2). In the second project, a protocol for ultra-sensitive indirect electrochemical detection of E. coli O157:H7 was reported. The protocol uses antibody functionalized primary (magnetic) beads for capture and polyguanine (polyG) oligonucleotide functionalized sec­ ondary (polystyrene) beads as an electrochemical tag. The method was able to detect concentrations of E. coli O157:H7 down to 3 CFU/100 mL (S/N=3). We also demonstrate the use of the protocol for detection of E. coli O157:H7 seeded in wastewater effluent samples.
Type Text
Publisher University of Utah
Subject Biosensors; Electrochemical Detection; Lab-on-a-chip; Microfluidics; Nanotechnology; Pathogen
Dissertation Institution University of Utah
Dissertation Name Doctor of Philosophy
Language eng
Rights Management Copyright © Harikrishnan Jayamohan 2015
Format Medium application/pdf
Format Extent 27,908 bytes
Identifier etd3/id/3913
ARK ark:/87278/s6cg2zc1
Setname ir_etd
Date Created 2016-06-07
Date Modified 2017-09-14
ID 197464
Reference URL https://collections.lib.utah.edu/ark:/87278/s6cg2zc1