||Boron's energy potential as a combustion fuel can be harnessed by using nanosize solid particulates. In this study, functionalized boron nanoparticles were produced through highyield ball milling techniques. The organic surface coating protected oxide-free boron nanoparticles from air oxidation and at the same time promoted dispersion in polar and nonpolar liquid fuels. For dispersion in hydrophobic fuels, oleic acid was used as ligand, and its interaction with boron nanoparticles was studied using XPS, FTIR, 13C-NMR and TGA. Results show that oleate species bonded to boron nanoparticles through a bridging bidentate interaction. Furthermore, undissociated oleic acid molecules persisted on the surface which may be anchored through intercalation with covalently bonded oleate species. Hydrogenation of boron through H 2 gas milling provides an alternative pathway of increasing ignitability and specific impulse of boron nanoparticles. It was also used to alkylate boron nanoparticles for dispersion in liquid hydrocarbon fuels. Boron nanoparticles were also milled with hypergolic ionic liquids to increase their energy density. Spectroscopic experiments that probed interactions of boron with 1-methyl-4-amino-1,2,4-triazolium dicyanamide([MAT][DCA]) and 1-butyl-3-methyl-imidazolium dicyanamide([BMIM][DCA]) suggest that a possible B-N binding exist between the amino substituent of [MAT][DCA] and the dicyanamide anion of both ILs.