Energy-conscious production of Titania and Titanium powders from slag

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Publication Type dissertation
School or College College of Mines & Earth Sciences
Department Metallurgical Engineering
Author Middlemas, Scott C.
Title Energy-conscious production of Titania and Titanium powders from slag
Date 2014-12
Description Titanium dioxide (TiO2) is used as a whitening agent in numerous domestic and technological applications and is mainly produced by the high temperature chloride process. A new hydrometallurgical process for making commercially pure TiO2 pigment is described with the goal of reducing the necessary energy consumption and CO2 emissions. The process includes alkaline roasting of titania slag with subsequent washing, HCl leaching, solvent extraction, hydrolysis, and calcination stages. The thermodynamics of the roasting reaction were analyzed, and the experimental parameters for each step in the new process were optimized with respect to TiO2 recovery, final product purity, and total energy requirements. Contacting the leach solution with a tertiary amine extractant resulted in complete Fe extraction in a single stage and proved effective in reducing the concentration of discoloring impurities in the final pigment to commercially acceptable levels. Additionally, a new method of producing Ti powders from titania slag is proposed as a potentially more energy efficient and lower cost alternative to the traditional Kroll process. Thermodynamic analysis and initial experimental results validate the concept of reducing titanium slag with a metal hydride to produce titanium hydride (TiH2 ) powders, which are subsequently purified by leaching and dehydrided to form Ti powders. The effects of reducing agent type, heating time and temperature, ball milling, powder compaction, and eutectic chloride salts on the conversion of slag to TiH2 powders were determined. The purification of reduced powders through NH4Cl, NaOH, and HCl leaching stages was investigated, and reagent concentration, leaching temperature, and time were varied in order to determine the best conditions for maximum impurity removal and recovery of TiH2. A model plant producing 100,000 tons TiO2 per year was designed that would employ the new method of pigment manufacture. A comparison of the new process and the chloride process indicated a 25% decrease in energy consumption and CO2 emissions. For the Ti powder making process, a 10,000 tons per year model plant employing the metal hydride reduction was designed and a comparison with the Kroll process indicated potential for over 60% less energy consumption and 50% less CO2 emission.
Type Text
Publisher University of Utah
Subject Energy efficiency; Life cycle assessment; Pigment making; Titanium dioxide; Titanium processing; Titanium slag
Dissertation Institution University of Utah
Dissertation Name Doctor of Philosophy
Language eng
Rights Management (c) Scott C. Middlemas
Format Medium application/pdf
Format Extent 3,236,971 bytes
Identifier etd3/id/3270
ARK ark:/87278/s67118q4
Setname ir_etd
Date Created 2015-02-03
Date Modified 2020-03-31
ID 196835
Reference URL