||Partial differential equations (PDEs) are widely used in science and engineering to model phenomena such as sound, heat, and electrostatics. In many practical science and engineering applications, the solutions of PDEs require the tessellation of computational domains into unstructured meshes and entail computationally expensive and time-consuming processes. Therefore, efficient and fast PDE solving techniques on unstructured meshes are important in these applications. Relative to CPUs, the faster growth curves in the speed and greater power efficiency of the SIMD streaming processors, such as GPUs, have gained them an increasingly important role in the high-performance computing area. Combining suitable parallel algorithms and these streaming processors, we can develop very efficient numerical solvers of PDEs. The contributions of this dissertation are twofold: proposal of two general strategies to design efficient PDE solvers on GPUs and the specific applications of these strategies to solve different types of PDEs. Specifically, this dissertation consists of four parts. First, we describe the general strategies, the domain decomposition strategy and the hybrid gathering strategy. Next, we introduce a parallel algorithm for solving the eikonal equation on fully unstructured meshes efficiently. Third, we present the algorithms and data structures necessary to move the entire FEM pipeline to the GPU. Fourth, we propose a parallel algorithm for solving the levelset equation on fully unstructured 2D or 3D meshes or manifolds. This algorithm combines a narrowband scheme with domain decomposition for efficient levelset equation solving.