||The accomplishments of Philip II of Macedonia have long been overshadowed by those of his son, Alexander the Great, due to the spectacular nature of Alexander's achievements and to the survival of ancient sources, though written later, that have documented Alexander's reign. Little remains of the histories or writings of Philip's contemporaries, and those that do remain are hostile to Philip and almost exclusively pro-Athenian. Ancient sources focus on Philip's diplomacy, imperialism, and character flaws-all from the view of outsiders watching Philip's actions against their Greek states. These ancient literary sources have necessarily focused the modern discussion of Greece in the 4th century BC on those same subjects and away from a survey of Philip's policies, systems, and successes within Macedonia. This thesis reviews the ancient literary, epigraphic, numismatic, and archaeological evidence in an effort to investigate Philip's initiatives and actions within Macedonia and to suggest the ideology related to these plans and strategies. Based on a review of this evidence, this thesis argues that Philip created a Macedonian state based on traditional Macedonian institutions, as well as new practices, that served Philip's purpose of uniting his disparate territories and peoples into one nation; and that Philip's reformed army provided the mechanism for Philip's achievement of his political, economic, and social goals, and importantly, for defining a national culture.