||Elevated serum lipids, blood pressure, and inflammation are related to dietary fat content and can increase the risk for cardiovascular disease. Diets lower in saturated fat have been shown to decrease cardiovascular disease risk. Dietary recommendations to consume leaner meats are often misconstrued as instructions to eliminate or greatly reduce red meat intake instead of consuming leaner red meat. The aim of this study is to investigate and compare the effects of daily consumption of two red meats, bison and beef, as part of a normal diet on cardiovascular risk factors. Twenty-four male and female volunteers (44.3±8.6 years, range 25-59 years), participated in a double-blind cross-over 16-week free living study. Prior to the trial, participants' lipid profiles ranged from normal to mildly hypercholesterolemic (201.8±34.1 mg/dL, total cholesterol range 160-260 mg/dL). Participants were randomly assigned to consume either bison or beef (6 oz for females; 8 oz for males) for 6 days per week for 42 days. Experimental trials were separated by 30 days. Then, participants consumed the other study meat. Overnight fasting blood samples were taken pre and postexperimental trials and analyzed for total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, triglycerides, hs-C-reactive protein, and lipoprotein particle size. Body weights and composition did not change significantly during the trial. There were no significant changes in any of the cardiovascular risk biomarkers: total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, triglycerides, and hs-Creactive protein. The results of this study suggest that habitual consumption of moderate portions of lean red meat may be accommodated in the diets of individuals with previously normal blood lipid levels without causing untoward effects upon cardiovascular risk factors.