||With the dramatic shift of chemotherapy administration from the inpatient to the outpatient setting, cancer patients are faced with increasing responsibility in the management of treatment side effects. Information about the use and efficacy of self-care activities in the regulation of chemotherapy side effects is essential in guiding nursing interventions for this patient population. Thus study represents a secondary analysis of data from a study of self-care activities among patients (N = 49) receiving cancer chemotherapy. The purpose of this analysis was to examine possible gender differences in self-care activities of adult cancer patients receiving chemotherapy in an outpatient setting. Using the self-care diary (SCD) developed for the study. Patients recorded their side effects, rated the severity of each side effect, and reported on the use and efficacy of self-care activities 2 days after treatment. The original sample was comprised of 19 (39%) male subjects and 30 (61%) female subjects with various types of cancer and chemotherapy. Of the original 30 female subject 15 (50%) were diagnosed with breast cancer. Although the literature on gender differences in individual adjustment to cancer is conflicting, some recent studies suggest that females with breast and gynecologic cancers may have less psychological distress than females with other cancers. To eliminate a possible confounding variable, to provide a more equitable distribution of male and female subjects, and to allow more heterogeneity of cancer type and treatment, the breast cancer subjects were removed from this sample. For the secondary analysis, the sample was comprised of 34 subjects: 15 (44%) females and 19 (56%) males. Demographic data, side effect incidence and severity, self-care activity type and efficacy were examined in relation to gender. Significant gender differences were found for selected self-care activities. However, no consistent pattern of gender difference was obtained in this sample.