||In the 1970's an increasing number of consumers of health care showed dissatisfaction with the present maternity care system. This dissatisfaction was due to the following: Consumers wanted more control and to be active participants in their health care; and they belied childbirth to be an essentially normal process, not an illness, as some hospitals treated it. As a result, these consumers no longer used the hospital for delivery of their children, but instead had the birth at home in a familiar, comfortable environment with family and friends nearby. This trend of home births was not confined to any geographic area, but was scattered across the United States. This phenomenon was recognized in 1972 in Salt Lake County and was investigated by the University of Utah College of Nursing. Information was gathered so that health care providers, such as the Public Health Department, could begin to plan their services to meet the needs of the home birth population. A few problem areas were identified in the study: It was difficult for some women to find someone who would deliver them at home; there was less prenatal care received than in the total childbearing families in the county; they sometimes failed to obtain needed lab tests and to have eye prophylaxis for the newborn. Since that study, informal evidence indicated that there was an increased incidence of home birth in Salt Lake Count. Therefore, a replication of the 1972 study was conducted to determine the percentage increase of home birth, to re-evaluate the problem areas, and to acquire selected information about the home birth population, such as their reasons for choosing a home birth, and the outcome of the pregnancy for the mother and child. The study population consisted of all women who had a planned home delivery in Salt Lake County in 1975. Information was acquired on the study population by the use of birth certificate data, and by a semi-structured interview. While only 52% of the total population was interviewed, it was found that the interviewed and non-interviewed groups were sufficiently similar to assume that the interview data was also representative of the total population. The results of the 1975 study indicated that home birth had increased in Salt Lake Count since 1972; the increase was from 53% to .77%. A demographic comparison of the home birth population with the total childbearing population in Salt Lake Count and the State of Utah revealed no significant differences between the two groups. The same problem areas identified in the 1972 study still existed in 1975. That is, the home birth families obtained less health care for mothers and children than the total childbearing public, and many times that had difficulty obtaining the care they needed. This was generally due to the negative reactions, or hostility, they encountered in the traditional maternity care system. Two major divisions in the study population were identified in relation to reasons for choosing a home birth. One group chose home births primarily because of family tradition, and the other group chose in primarily because of anti-hospital feelings. Many other reasons were also given secondary considerations. The outcome of the home births for mother and child was not significantly different from the average childbearing family in Salt Lake Count and the State of Utah. This confirmed the findings of the 1972 study.