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TitleDescriptionSubject
1 Atypical ocular motor features (gaze-evoked nystagmus) in PSPThis is a 70-yo-woman who met clinical and radiologic diagnostic criteria for progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP). Typical ocular motor features of PSP include square wave jerks, hypometric saccades, choppy pursuit/VORS, impaired down>upgaze (supranuclear in origin) and impaired down>upward saccade...Abnormal Saccades; OMS Cerebellar; Jerk Nystagmus; Upbeat Nystagmus; Gaze Evoked Nystagmus
2 Bilateral INOs Due to StrokeThis is a 65-year-old man with multiple vascular risk factors who experienced the abrupt onset of diplopia 6 months prior to this video. MRI done within 24 hours of onset was unremarkable. Examination demonstrated subtle bilateral adduction lag with horizontal saccades. There was very mild abducting...Abnormal Saccades; Abnormal Range
3 Bilateral riMLF syndrome causing vertical saccadic palsy and loss of ipsitorsional fast phasesThis is a 60-year-old man who developed fatigue and diabetes insipidus about 12 months prior to this video, and MRI demonstrated hypothalamic enhancement at that time. Nine months prior to this video, he gradually noticed that he was unable to look down. Work-up for ischemic, infectious, inflammator...Midbrain OMS; Downgaze Palsy; Upgaze Palsy; Vertical Gaze Palsy; Abnormal Saccades; Normal Pursuit
4 Cerebellar eye signs in SCA8This is a 30-yo-man with a diagnosis of SCA 8 who had appendicular and gait ataxia in addition to choppy smooth pursuit and VORS, downbeat nystagmus, saccadic hypermetria, and gaze-evoked nystagmus with rebound nystagmus. He also had an esotropia worse at distance, which is commonly found with cereb...Saccadic dysmetria; Downbeat nystagmus; Gaze-evoked nystagmus; Vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) supression; Saccades
5 Chronic progressive external ophthalmoplegia (CPEO) and cerebellar signsThis is a 60-yo-woman who initially presented with imbalance and ophthalmoparesis. Initially, there was mild horizontal gaze limitation with mild gaze-evoked nystagmus and slow saccades, and over the years, gait ataxia and dysarthria (mainly a scanning quality to her speech) developed, and her ophth...Abnormal Saccades, Abnormal Range, Horizontal Gaze Palsy, Gaze Evoked Nystagmus
6 Complete Saccadic Palsy Due to Pulmonary ThrombectomyThis is a 37-year-old woman who underwent pulmonary thrombectomy for a pulmonary embolus. Immediately following the procedure, she was unable to make normal eye movements. This video exam (she is the passenger in a car during a telemedicine appointment) was performed 4 months after the onset. She wa...Saccades; Horizontal Gaze Palsy; Vertical Gaze Palsy; Upgaze Palsy; Downgaze Palsy
7 ConvergenceCan bring out or change the direction of vertical nystagmus in Wernicke's, or cerebellar disease; may be impaired in Parkinson's disease, head trauma, elderly patients; may overcome an adduction deficit with an INO. Instructional ocular motor examination procedures.Convergence; Exam; Abnormal Saccades
8 Gaze-Evoked Nystagmus & Slow Saccades Due to Anti-GAD Antibodies in a Patient with Stiff Person SyndromeThis is a 70-year-old woman with a several year long history of imbalance and stiffness. Exam demonstrated axial and lower extremity stiffness, and ocular motor exam demonstrated gaze-evoked nystagmus (e.g., right-beating in right gaze, left-beating in left gaze, up-beating in up gaze), and mild to ...Jerk Nystagmus; Gaze-Evoked Nystagmus; Abnormal Saccades
9 HINTS Exam and Saccadic Dysmetria in Lateral Medullary StrokeThis is a 50-year-old who experienced the abrupt onset of prolonged vertigo following chiropractic therapy 2 months prior. Initial work-up included an MRI and MR angiogram - MR-diffusion weighted imaging showed an acute left lateral medullary stroke and left vertebral artery occlusion, which was tho...Abnormal Saccades, Acute Vestibular Syndrome, Jerk Nystagmus, Vestibular Nystagmus, Normal VOR, Skew Deviation, OMS Medulla
10 INOs in strokeThis video shows 3 patients with vascular risk factors who suffered strokes of the MLF resulting in unilateral INO in each case. In the second case, INO was diagnosed status post cardiac catherization and MRI was found to be normal. In the third case, the patient had a clear left medial rectus palsy...Internuclear Ophthalmoplegia, Abnormal Saccades, Gaze Evoked Nystagmus, Abducting Nystagmus
11 Internuclear Ophthalmoplegia (INO) in multiple sclerosisThis video includes 3 patients each with a known history of MS found to have unilateral or bilateral INOs on their exam. In the first 2 patients, the INOs are relatively subtle with normal adduction. However, with rapid horizontal saccades, an adduction lag is apparent which is suggestive of an INO....Internuclear Ophthalmoplegia, Abnormal Saccades, Gaze Evoked Nystagmus
12 Mesodiencephalic Stroke Causing Unilateral riMLF and INC Ocular Motor SyndromesThis is a 65-year-old man who experienced the sudden onset of diplopia (with horizontal and vertical components), dysarthria and imbalance. An MRI performed the following day showed a left mesodiencephalic stroke. The patient was seen in clinic 10 days later (when the video was taken), and by that t...Abnormal Saccades; Abnormal Alignment; Mesencephalon; Jerk Nystagmus; Torsional Nystagmus
13 Monocular downbeat nystagmus due to a posterior fossa cystThis is a 40-yo-man who experienced months of imbalance and was found to have an epidermoid cyst (immediately posterior to the 4th ventricle), which was resected. Months after surgery, he experienced monocular vertical oscillopsia. On examination, there was subtle downbeat nystagmus (DBN) in the rig...Downbeat Nystagmus, Jerk Nystagmus, Gaze Evoked Nystagmus, Abnormal Saccades
14 Nystagmus due to paraneoplastic (anti-Yo) brainstem and cerebellar degenerationThis is a 40-yo-woman with anti-Yo antibody associated with ovarian cancer. Initial symptoms 2.5 years prior (to this video) included imbalance and dysarthria. She complained of oscillopsia which was due to her upbeat nystagmus (presumably the result of brainstem involvement), and diplopia (she had ...Abnormal Saccades, Abnormal VORS, Cerebellar, Jerk Nystagmus, Upbeat Nystagmus, Gaze Evoked Nystagmus,
15 Ocular Motor Signs in Brainstem Demyelinating Disease - Spontaneous Upbeat, Vertical Gaze-Evoked Nystagmus, Slow Saccades, Bilateral Vestibular Loss, INOsThis is a 25-year-old woman who presented with painful vision loss bilaterally two years prior to this video recording, which was diagnosed as optic neuritis. Months later, she experienced oscillopsia and binocular horizontal diplopia and was subsequently diagnosed with multiple sclerosis. No record...Abnormal Saccades; Abnormal VOR-HIT; Abnormal Range; INO; Upbeat Nystagmus; Abducting Nystagmus; Gaze-Evoked Nystagmus
16 Ocular Motor Signs in Early Progressive Supranuclear PalsyThis is a 64-year old man who experienced imbalance and falls (usually backwards) for the last 6 months. He experienced difficulty navigating stairs and had become a messy eater (thought to be in large part due to his vertical gaze palsy), and had developed hypophonia. Exam demonstrated square wave ...Abnormal Saccades; Abnormal Convergence; Abnormal Pursuit; Abnormal Range; Abnormal VORS; Vertical Gaze Palsy; Downgaze Palsy; OMS Mesencephalon
17 One-and-a-Half Syndrome Due to Pontine HemorrhageThis is a 50-year-old woman who, while exercising in the gym, suddenly experienced vertigo, nausea, vomiting, tingling in the left arm, and diplopia. MRI demonstrated a brainstem hemorrhage that involved the right greater than left pons. Examination demonstrated a right horizontal gaze palsy due to ...Abnormal Saccades; Sixth Nerve Palsy; INO; One and a Half Syndrome; Jerk Nystagmus; Gaze Evoked Nystagmus
18 PSP with Vertical Gaze Palsy, Abnormal Optokinetic Nystagmus and Inability to Suppress Blinking to LightThis is a 75-year-old woman with a diagnosis of progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP). Examination demonstrated vertical supranuclear gaze palsy (i.e., it could be overcome by the vertical vestibulo-ocular reflex [VOR]), saccadic smooth pursuit and VOR suppression (not shown), and hypometric and slow...Vertical Gaze Palsy; Abnormal Optokinetic Nystagmus; Abnormal Saccades
19 Paraflocculus (Tonsillar) Ocular Motor Syndrome and Dysmetria in a Chiari Malformation - Pre and Post-Operative ExamsThis is a 25-year-old woman presenting with 6 months or progressive imbalance, binocular vertical diplopia, and occipital headaches, which were brought on or aggravated by coughing or sneezing. Examination demonstrated hyperreflexia in the arms and legs with sustained clonus at the ankles and Babins...Saccades; Skew Diviation; VOR Supression; Pursuit; Medulla
20 Parinaud's syndrome in a man with GBM of the pineal glandThis is a 60-yo-man who presented with diplopia, headaches, and difficulty looking up, and was found to have a mass involving the pineal gland. Biopsy was diagnostic of a GBM. Major features of Parinaud's (dorsal midbrain) syndrome were present including: upgaze palsy, convergence retraction nystagm...Saccades; Convergence; Range; Dorsal midbrain syndrome; Convergence retraction nystagmus; Upgaze palsy
21 Parinaud's syndrome with impaired upward saccades and otherwise normal vertical eye movementsThis is a 50-yo-man who suffered a dorsal midbrain stroke. Exam demonstrated normal vertical range of eye movements, normal vertical VOR and smooth pursuit, but inability to perform upward saccades. Another feature of Parinaud's syndrome seen on his exam was light-near dissociation (not shown in thi...abnormal saccades, range of eye movements, abnormal range of eye movements, smooth pursuit, normal VOR, Dorsal midbrain syndrome
22 Pendular Nystagmus and Ocular Motor Signs in MSThis is a 30-year-old man with a 15 year history of multiple sclerosis. For the last 12 months, he experienced horizontal oscillopsia. On examination, there were ocular motor abnormalities including gaze-evoked nystagmus, saccadic smooth pursuit, and hypermetric saccades which were attributable to h...Pendular Nystagmus; Jerk Nystagmus; Gaze Evoked Nystagmus; Abnormal Saccades
23 Pseudo-INOs in myasthenia gravisThis is a 55-yo-woman with an intermittent exotropia who had normal adduction OU, but clear lag of adducting saccades OD>OS with rapid horizontal saccades. This was much more apparent after repeat testing (ie, it was fatigable), and she wound up having ocular MG.Myasthenia Gravis, INO, Abnormal Saccades
24 SaccadesThe examiner should note: conjugacy (a lag of the adducting eye may be seen with an INO); accuracy (posterior fossa lesions commonly produce dysmetria (overshooting or undershooting); velocity (if slow, may suggest a lesion of the burst neurons in the pons [PPRF - horizontally] or midbrain [riMLF - ...Saccades; Exam; Conjugacy; Abnormal saccades
25 Saccadic Hypermetria and Ipsipulsion (Behind Closed Eyelids and with Vertical Saccades)This is a 40-year-old woman who experienced oscillopsia and vertical diplopia, due to spontaneous torsional nystagmus and a skew deviation (right hypotropia), respectively. The symptom onset was 7 months prior to these videos. MRI demonstrated ill-defined T2 and FLAIR hyperintensity signal changes i...Jerk Nystagmus; Torsional Nystagmus; Saccades; Lateropulsion; Medulla
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