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TitleDescriptionSubject
1 Abnormal Visually-Enhanced VOR in Cerebellar Ataxia, Neuropathy, Vestibular Areflexia Syndrome (CANVAS)A 67 year old woman presented with 1 year of progressive numbness, gait instability, and oscillopsia when walking or with head movements. Examination showed excessive square-wave jerks, bilateral horizontal gaze-evoked nystagmus, impairment of the visually-enhanced vestibular ocular reflex (vVOR - s...Abnormal Pursuit; Abnormal VOR; Abnormal HIT; Cerebellar; Jerk Nystagmus; Gaze Evoked Nystagmus
2 Alternating Hypertropias - Bilateral 4th Nerve Palsies and Alternating Skew DeviationSeen here are two patients with alternating hypertropias. The first is a 70-year-old woman with a diagnosis of cerebellar ataxia, neuropathy, vestibular areflexia syndrome (CANVAS). In the video, both spontaneous downbeat nystagmus (DBN) and gaze-evoked nystagmus (GEN) are apparent, in addition to a...Skew Deviation; Alignment; Fourth Nerve Palsy; Cerebellar Pathology; Jerk Nystagmus; Downbeat Nystagmus; Gaze Evoked Nystagmus
3 Atypical ocular motor features (gaze-evoked nystagmus) in PSPThis is a 70-yo-woman who met clinical and radiologic diagnostic criteria for progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP). Typical ocular motor features of PSP include square wave jerks, hypometric saccades, choppy pursuit/VORS, impaired down>upgaze (supranuclear in origin) and impaired down>upward saccade...Abnormal Saccades; OMS Cerebellar; Jerk Nystagmus; Upbeat Nystagmus; Gaze Evoked Nystagmus
4 Central Positional Vertigo and Nystagmus in a Posterior Fossa TumorThis is a 30-year old woman who presented with positional vertigo and vomiting following a concussion related to a car accident 3 months prior. She was initially diagnosed with posterior canal (PC) benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV), although there was no improvement with Epley maneuvers. T...Vestibular Nystagmus, Jerk Nystagmus, Gaze-Evoked Nystagmus, Central Positional Nystagmus, Cerebellar OMS, Downbeat Nystagmus, Upbeat Nystagmus
5 Cerebellar degeneration with downbeat nystagmus provoked by convergenceDescription: This is a 70-yo-woman with a progressive gait disorder, diagnosed with cerebellar ataxia. She displayed typical cerebellar ocular motor signs including gaze-evoked nystagmus, choppy pursuit and VOR suppression, and there was very subtle spontaneous downbeat nystagmus, best appreciated w...Convergence Abnormal, Cerebellar pathology, Jerk nystagmus, Downbeat nystagmus
6 Cerebellar eye signs in SCA8This is a 30-yo-man with a diagnosis of SCA 8 who had appendicular and gait ataxia in addition to choppy smooth pursuit and VORS, downbeat nystagmus, saccadic hypermetria, and gaze-evoked nystagmus with rebound nystagmus. He also had an esotropia worse at distance, which is commonly found with cereb...Saccadic dysmetria; Downbeat nystagmus; Gaze-evoked nystagmus; Vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) supression; Saccades
7 Divergence insufficiency in cerebellar ataxiaThis is a 65-yo woman with complaints of imbalance (progressive over years) and horizontal diplopia at distance. On her exam, there was a small symptomatic esotropia at distance, but only a small esophoria at near. There were no obvious abduction deficits, and the 6 prism diopter ET at distance was...Abnormal Alignment, Divergence Insufficiency, OMS Cerebellar
8 Downbeat (Perverted) Head Shaking Nystagmus in a Patient with Spontaneous Torsional NystagmusThis is a 75-year-old woman with vascular risk factors who experienced abrupt onset imbalance and dizziness. Symptoms were maximal at onset, and she denied progression over 6 months. Clinically, it was felt that she had suffered a stroke, although an MRI one months later demonstrated an unremarkable...Torsional Nystagmus; Jerk Nystagmus; Headshaking; Downbeat Nystagmus; Cerebellar Pathology
9 Downbeat NystagmusThis is a 40-year-old man with 2 years of progressive ataxia and oscillopsia. On examination, he had downbeat nystagmus (DBN), an ocular motor finding that is usually (but not always) associated with flocculus/paraflocculus dysfunction, which causes overaction of the anterior canal (upward or anti-g...Downbeat Nystagmus; OMS Cerebellar; Jerk Nystagmus; Vestibular Nystagmus
10 Downbeat Nystagmus and Cerebellar AtrophyThis is a 40-year-old man with 2 years of progressive ataxia and oscillopsia. On examination, he had downbeat nystagmus (DBN), an ocular motor finding that is usually (but not always) associated with flocculus/paraflocculus dysfunction, which causes overaction of the anterior canal (upward or anti-g...Downbeat Nystagmus; OMS Cerebellar; Jerk Nystagmus; Vestibular Nystagmus
11 Downbeat Nystagmus with Active Horizontal Head ShakingThis is a 70-year-old man who presented with one single complaint for 10 years - if he moved his head too quickly (even one single horizontal head movement to the right or the left), he would experience the abrupt loss of balance and dizziness. His typical episodes were reproducible, and interesting...Downbeat Nystagmus; Jerk Nystagmus; OMS Cerebellar; Abnormal Headshaking; Gaze-Evoked Nystagmus
12 Downbeat nystagmus and convergence spasmThis is a 60-yo-woman with vertical oscillopsia related to her downbeat nystagmus, and diplopia related to an intermittent esotropia. When the esotropia was present, with versions there were bilateral abduction deficits. With ductions and the vestibulo-ocular reflex, it was apparent that the range o...Convergence-abnormal, Range-abnormal, Sixth nerve palsy, Convergence spasm, Cerebellar pathology, Jerk nystagmus, Downbeat nystagmus
13 Gaze-Evoked and Centripetal Nystagmus in Creutzfeldt-Jakob DiseaseThis is a 65-year-old woman who experienced a progressive cerebellopathy over several months. Initially, she presented with mild gait imbalance and positional vertigo, and there was only apogeotropic positional nystagmus (more pronounced in supine roll test compared to Dix-Hallpike) with a very slig...Jerk Nystagmus; Gaze-Evoked Nystagmus; Rebound Nystagmus
14 Gaze-evoked and rebound nystagmus in a cerebellar syndrome30-yo-man with the subacute onset of a cerebellar syndrome. After extensive evaluation and progression, it was thought that this represented an autoimmune process and there was some improvement with immunosuppression. He had a variety of cerebellar ocular motor findings, including gaze-evoked nystag...Jerk nystagmus; End-gaze nystagmus; Gaze-evoked nystagmus; Rebound nystagmus; Cerebellar pathology
15 Hyperventilation-Induced Downbeat Nystagmus in a Cerebellar DisorderThis is a 45-year-old woman with a chronic progressive cerebellopathy of unclear etiology (worsening over at least 10 years) characterized by gait and limb ataxia, gaze-evoked nystagmus, saccadic pursuit and vestibulo-ocular reflex suppression, an esotropia greater at distance, along with very mild ...Hyperventilation; Jerk Nystagmus; Downbeat Nystagmus; Downbeat Nystagmus; Cerebellar Pathology
16 Idiopathic downbeat nystagmus, decreasing with convergenceThis is a 25-yo-woman who experienced vertically oscillopsia for 1 year, and was found to have downbeat nystagmus. Interestingly, there were no other cerebellar ocular motor signs - e.g., normal saccades, smooth pursuit, VOR suppression, and no gaze-evoked nystagmus, although her (pure) downbeat was...Convergence-Abnormal, Cerebellar Pathology, Downbeat nystagmus, Jerk nystagmus
17 Nystagmus due to paraneoplastic (anti-Yo) brainstem and cerebellar degenerationThis is a 40-yo-woman with anti-Yo antibody associated with ovarian cancer. Initial symptoms 2.5 years prior (to this video) included imbalance and dysarthria. She complained of oscillopsia which was due to her upbeat nystagmus (presumably the result of brainstem involvement), and diplopia (she had ...Abnormal Saccades, Abnormal VORS, Cerebellar, Jerk Nystagmus, Upbeat Nystagmus, Gaze Evoked Nystagmus,
18 Ocular Motor Signs in SCA 6This is a 45-yo-man who was recently diagnosed with SCA 6. There was no clear spontaneous downbeat nystagmus (DBN) in primary gaze, although DBN could clearly be provoked by convergence. Other ocular motor features included choppy pursuit and VOR suppression horizontally and vertically, in addition ...Abnormal Convergence; Abnormal VORS; OMS Cerebellar; Downbeat Nystagmus; Jerk Nystagmus; Gaze Evoked Nystagmus; Rebound Nystagmus
19 Ocular Motor Signs of Cerebellar Ataxia - Gaze-Evoked Nystagmus, Saccadic Pursuit, and VOR supressionThis is a 30-year-old woman with a several year long history of imbalance due to cerebellar ataxia of unclear etiology. Seen in this video are common ocular motor signs in patients with advanced cerebellar dysfunction including: 1) saccadic smooth pursuit, 2) saccadic vestibulo-ocular reflex suppres...Jerk Nystagus; Gaze-Evoked Nystagmus; Abnormal Pursuit; Abnormal VORS; Rebound Nystagmus
20 Paraneoplastic Downbeat Nystagmus and Cerebellar Ataxia Due to Small Cell Lung CarcinomaThis is a 61-year-old woman (non-smoker) who developed a gait disorder, dizziness and oscillopsia that was progressive over 2 months. Exam demonstrated spontaneous downbeat nystagmus with side pocket nystagmus in lateral gaze (a combination of horizontal gaze-evoked and downbeat nystagmus, giving an...Jerk Nystagmus; Downbeat Nystagmus; Cerebellar Ataxia; Carcinoma
21 Pendular, Gaze-Evoked and Abducting Nystagmus in MSThis is a 40-year-old woman with a history of multiple sclerosis who presented for oscillopsia. On examination, she had bilateral internuclear ophthalmoplegia (INO-adduction lag OU and abducting nystagmus OU), with a corresponding exotropia that increased in right and left gaze. She also had horiz...Jerk Nystagmus; INO; Pendular Nystagmus; Abducting Nystagmus; Gaze-Evoked Nystagmus; Cerebellar OMS
22 Periodic Alternating Nystagmus and Central Head-Shaking Nystagmus from Nodulus InjuryThis is a 35-year-old man who suffered a gunshot wound to his cerebellum. When he regained consciousness days later, he experienced oscillopsia due to periodic alternating nystagmus (PAN). He was started on baclofen 10 mg bid, and had a dramatic response and only had moderate spontaneous left-beatin...Jerk Nystagmus; Gaze-Evoked Nystagmus; Abnormal Headshake; Periodic Alternating Nystagmus
23 Periodic Alternating Nystagmus due to Spinocerebellar Ataxia Type 6This 50-yo-man complained of imbalance for several years and more recently oscillopsia. On examination, there was saccadic pursuit and VOR suppression in addition to gaze-evoked nystagmus with rebound, raising suspicion for a vestibulocerebellar localization. Additionally, there was periodic alterna...Cerebellar; Jerk nystagmus; Periodic alternating nystagmus; Gaze evoked nystagmus; Rebound nystagmus
24 Periodic alternating nystagmus and perverted head-shaking nystagmus in cerebellar degenerationThis is a 60-yo-woman with several years of worsening imbalance, diplopia (hers was actually unrelated to cerebellar pathology [although she did have an esotropia greater at distance that was cerebellar in origin] and due to thyroid eye disease) and blurry vision (due to her spontaneous nystagmus). ...Headshaking, Cerebellar, Jerk Nystagmus, Periodic Alternating Nystagmus
25 Positional downbeat nystagmus mimicking anterior canal BPPVAlthough positional downbeat nystagmus (pDBN) can indicate the rare anterior canal variant of benign paroxysmal positional vertigo, central mimics are common causes of pDBN. pDBN may be seen in multiple system atrophy (MSA), or seen with posterior fossa lesions, with a common example being a stroke ...Cerebellar, Jerk Nystagmus, Downbeat Nystagmus, Central Positional Nystagmus
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