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1 ConvergenceCan bring out or change the direction of vertical nystagmus in Wernicke's, or cerebellar disease; may be impaired in Parkinson's disease, head trauma, elderly patients; may overcome an adduction deficit with an INO. Instructional ocular motor examination procedures.Convergence; Exam; Abnormal Saccades
2 Evaluation of ConvergenceThe assessment of convergence includes measuring alignment at near versus distance (see video, https://collections.lib.utah.edu/details?id=187677), near point of convergence and convergence amplitude. Near point of convergence is assessed by bringing a fixation target toward the bridge of the patie...Normal Convergence
3 One-and-a-Half Syndrome Due to Pontine HemorrhageThis is a 50-year-old woman who, while exercising in the gym, suddenly experienced vertigo, nausea, vomiting, tingling in the left arm, and diplopia. MRI demonstrated a brainstem hemorrhage that involved the right greater than left pons. Examination demonstrated a right horizontal gaze palsy due to ...Abnormal Saccades; Sixth Nerve Palsy; INO; One and a Half Syndrome; Jerk Nystagmus; Gaze Evoked Nystagmus
4 Organic Convergence Spasm and Nystagmus in Posterior Fossa LymphomaThis is a 20-year-old woman, who 9 months prior to this video, first experienced episodes of vertigo and vomiting occurring when lying down or rolling over in bed. Gastrointestinal work-up was unrevealing and MRI was performed which demonstrated "multifocal nodular enhancing lesions along the ependy...Spasm
5 Reversal of Vertical Nystagmus with Convergence in Anti-DPPX EncephalitisThis is a man who initially presented with spontaneous upbeat and torsional nystagmus, which led to the diagnosis of anti-DPPX encephalitis (for further details on this patient's course and for a video of his nystagmus, see reference 1). Over 6-12 months, his spontaneous (mainly) upbeat nystagmus (U...Upbeat Nystagmus; Downbeat Nystagmus; Jerk Nystagmus; Gaze-Evoked Nystagmus
6 Test Your Knowledge - Parinaud's Syndrome in NeurosarcoidosisWatch the first segment of the video up to "Stop! What would you expect with vertical gaze?" and select the best response below. The patient also has mild right-beating nystagmus which can be ignored for the purposes of this question. A. The patient has pupillary findings consistent with bilateral 3...Normal Convergence; Vertical Gaze Palsy; Upgaze Palsy; Dorsal Midbrain; Mesencephalon; Convergence Retraction
7 Upbeat Nystagmus & Ocular Flutter Due to Cerebellar Pilocytic AstrocytomaThis is a 20-year-old woman who was diagnosed with a cerebellar pilocytic astrocytoma at age 10 after presenting with severe headaches and hydrocephalus. She underwent incomplete resection and radiation therapy at that time. She experienced mild vertical oscillopsia in upgaze at baseline, and increa...Upbeat Nystagmus; Ocular Flutter
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