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TitleDescriptionType
201 Traumatic 3rd nerve palsy with aberrant regenerationThis is a 20-yo-woman who experienced severe head trauma and diplopia upon awakening from a coma several weeks after the injury. She had a partial left 3rd nerve palsy (adduction spared), and when she looked to the right and down, her mildly ptotic lid elevated. Aberrant regeneration of CN 3 occurs ...Image/MovingImage
202 Triangle of Guillain-MollaretSeen here is a schematic representation of the Gullain-Mollaret triangle (Figure 1), also referred to as the dentato-olivary pathway, reflecting the 3 points of this imaginary triangle - 1) dentate nucleus, 2) red nucleus, and 3) inferior olivary nucleus. The olive sends decussating climbing fibers ...
203 Trigeminal motor neuropathy with weakness and atrophy of the muscles of masticationThis is a man who was diagnosed with polio in childhood, which involved the motor (VIII) division of the right trigeminal nerve. The motor portion of the trigeminal nerve innervates the muscles of mastication (temporalis, masseter - both of which demonstrate wasting in this patient - as well as the ...
204 Trigeminal neuropathy with loss of the corneal reflexThis is a woman who underwent radiofrequency ablation for left trigeminal neuralgia. Examination demonstrated loss of facial sensation on the left in addition to an absent corneal reflex on the left, consistent with involvement of the V1 (ophthalmic) branch of the trigeminal nerve. When the cornea i...
205 Trigeminal, Facial (with Aberrant Regeneration), and Vestibulocochlear Nerve Palsies Following Tumor ResectionThis is a 30-yo-woman who underwent resection of a right trigeminal schwannoma. Post-operatively, she was vertiginous with a clearly + head impulse test to the right (and spontaneous left-beating nystagmus), had lost hearing in the right ear, had no facial sensation on the right, and had a right low...Image/MovingImage
206 Two patients with Parinaud's syndrome with slow upward saccades and normal upward range of movementsPresented here are two patients with Parinaud's syndrome: Patient 1) suffered a hemorrhage of the dorsal midbrain causing slow upward saccades (with convergence retraction nystagmus, but normal vertical range of eye movements), and light-near dissociation, and Patient 2) had a germinoma of the dorsa...Image/MovingImage
207 Typical features of Duane syndrome type 1This is a patient seen for vestibular complaints, who on exam, was found to have (unrelated to her vestibular symptoms) impaired abduction OS. In adduction, there was narrowing of the palpebral fissure OS, a result of globe retraction due to co-contraction of the medial and lateral rectus muscles. T...Image/MovingImage
208 Typical lid signs (Cogan's lid twitch, lid hopping, enhanced ptosis) in myasthenia gravisThis is a 60-yo-woman with MG who displays typical eyelid signs including Cogan's lid twitch, lid hopping (appreciated during horizontal smooth pursuit in this patient), and enhanced ptosis in accordance with Hering's law of equal innervation to the two levator muscles.Image/MovingImage
209 Unidirectional nystagmus in lateral medullary syndromeThis is a 70-yo-man who presented with acute vertigo. Examination demonstrated very mild spontaneous torsional nystagmus (towards the right ear) in primary (not seen well in this video), with robust downbeat-torsional (towards right ear) nystagmus in right gaze and (less robust) almost pure torsiona...Image/MovingImage
210 Unidirectional vestibular nystagmus60-yo-man with recurrent vertigo attacks - this video was taken during one of his typical attacks, and shows left-beating nystagmus that stayed left-beating in all directions of gaze, more in left gaze (in accordance with Alexander's Law), and less in right gaze. This pattern is more commonly seen w...Image/MovingImage
211 Unilateral 3rd, 4th, and 6th nerve palsies due to cavernous sinus meningiomaThis is a 50-year-old woman presenting with a partial 3rd nerve palsy (mild pupil involvement), partial 6th nerve palsy, and no clear incyclotorsion with downgaze, suggestive of additional 4th nerve palsy, all on the left. With compressive lesions involving the 3rd nerve, often aberrant regeneration...Image/MovingImage
212 Upbeat and downbeat nystagmus due to anti-VGCC antibodiesSeen here are two patients who presented with imbalance and vertical oscillopsia, the first with upbeat nystagmus, and the second with downbeat nystagmus. Both patients were found to have voltage-gated calcium channel antibodies in serum without evidence of systemic malignancy. The UBN patient had m...Image/MovingImage
213 Upbeating and gaze-evoked nystagmus, V-pattern esotropia from bilateral 4th nerve palsiesImage/MovingImage
214 Using video head impulse testing to unmask covert saccades in compensated vestibular neuritisThis is a 30-year-old woman who experienced the acute vestibular syndrome (prolonged vertigo for >24 hours, nausea, unsteadiness, spontaneous nystagmus, head motion intolerance) and was diagnosed with vestibular neuritis. This diagnosis was based on a positive head impulse test to the left (see Figu...
215 Using video head impulse testing to unmask covert saccades in compensated vestibular neuritis - Figures 1 and 2This is a 30-year-old woman who experienced the acute vestibular syndrome (prolonged vertigo for >24 hours, nausea, unsteadiness, spontaneous nystagmus, head motion intolerance) and was diagnosed with vestibular neuritis. This diagnosis was based on a positive head impulse test to the left (see Figu...
216 The utriculo-ocular motor pathways - physiologic and pathologic ocular tilt reaction: OTR Diagram Pathologic EOMs Labelled (Figure 3)A skew deviation is a non-paralytic vertical ocular misalignment that is due to imbalance in the utriculo-ocular motor pathways. While vestibular jerk nystagmus is a consequence of static semicircular canal pathway imbalance (e.g., left-beating nystagmus due to acute right vestibular hypofunction fr...
217 The utriculo-ocular motor pathways - physiologic and pathologic ocular tilt reaction: Pathologic OTR (Figure 2)A skew deviation is a non-paralytic vertical ocular misalignment that is due to imbalance in the utriculo-ocular motor pathways. While vestibular jerk nystagmus is a consequence of static semicircular canal pathway imbalance (e.g., left-beating nystagmus due to acute right vestibular hypofunction fr...
218 The utriculo-ocular motor pathways - physiologic and pathologic ocular tilt reaction: Physiologic ocular tilt reaction (OTR) (Figure 1)A skew deviation is a non-paralytic vertical ocular misalignment that is due to imbalance in the utriculo-ocular motor pathways. While vestibular jerk nystagmus is a consequence of static semicircular canal pathway imbalance (e.g., left-beating nystagmus due to acute right vestibular hypofunction fr...
219 Vertical gaze palsy and saccadic intrusions due to anti-Ri from head and neck carcinomaA 55-yo- woman was admitted for imbalance and double vision. Three weeks prior to presentation she first noticed swelling on the right side of her face and neck. CT of the head and neck showed right-sided cervical adenopathy and enlarged left retropharyngeal node. Ultrasound- guided biopsy of the n...Image/MovingImage
220 The vertical semicircular canal pathwaysAnterior Canal Pathway; Afferents that originate in the anterior canals (AC) of the peripheral labyrinth first synapse in the ipsilateral vestibular nucleus. Three pathways exist: ; 1) medial longitudinal fasciculus (MLF) - right AC afferents to right medial vestibular nucleus (MVN), decussate and a...
221 Vertical vergence and fusional amplitudeEssential information on vertical fusional vergences.
222 Vertical-Torsional Pendular Nystagmus and Convergence Spasm Due to Anti-MaTa EncephalitisThis is a 50-yo-woman with debilitating oscillopsia due to a high frequency (6 Hz) vertical-torsional pendular (quantitative eye movement recordings were performed) nystagmus. She also had intermittent double vision due to (organic) convergence spasm. Her nystagmus and spasm were thought to be relat...Image/MovingImage
223 Vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (VEMPs)Vestibular-evoked myogenic potentials (VEMP) are electromyographic potential reflex tests that reflect the function of the saccule in cervical VEMP and the utricle in ocular VEMP.1 In the cervical VEMP an inhibitory reflex is evoked from the saccule to the sternocleidomastoid ipsilateral to the stim...
224 Vestibular neuritis with + head impulse test and unidirectional nystagmusVestibular neuritis is the most common cause of the acute vestibular syndrome, which is characterized by continuous vertigo and spontaneous nystagmus lasting days. It may be mimicked by central causes, including stroke, but in the hands of subspecialists, the HINTS+ (Head Impulse, Nystagmus, Test o...
225 Vestibular neuritis with + head impulse test and unidirectional nystagmus-Figure 1Vestibular neuritis is the most common cause of the acute vestibular syndrome, which is characterized by continuous vertigo and spontaneous nystagmus lasting days. It may be mimicked by central causes, including stroke, but in the hands of subspecialists, the HINTS+ (Head Impulse, Nystagmus, Test of...
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