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TitleCreatorDescription
201 Papilledema 2013Kathleen B. Digre, MD, Professor of Neurology and Ophthalmology, Director of Neuro-Ophthalmology, John A. Moran Eye Center, University of Utah School of MedicineObjectives: What types of disc findings can be confused for papilledema List the features of true disc swelling Describe the tests you would order to evaluate and w/u papilledema List differential diagnosis of papilledema Describe possible treatments for papilledema (medical and surgical)
202 Optic Disc Anatomy, Variants, and Usual DiscsKathleen B. Digre, MD, Professor of Neurology and Ophthalmology, Director of Neuro-Ophthalmology, John A. Moran Eye Center, University of Utah School of MedicineExamination of optic disc, disc anatomy, disc variation
203 Joint Commission International Accreditation Standards for Ambulatory CareJoint Commission International Accreditation (JCIA)This second edition of the Joint Commission International Accreditation Standards for Ambulatory Care contains all the standards, intent statements, and measurable elements of standards; accreditation policies and procedures; a glossary of key terms; and an index.
204 Contrast SensitivityMichael Wall, MD, University of Iowa, Department of Neurology and Ophthalmology; Chris A. Johnson, MD, Devers Eye InstituteVisual acuity defines the smallest spatial detail that can be resolved for high-contrast stimuli, but it does not specify the responses of the visual system to objects of different sizes and contrasts.
205 Multifocal ERG Mapping TechniquesMichael Wall, MD, University of Iowa, Department of Neurology and Ophthalmology; Chris A. Johnson, MD, Devers Eye InstituteSutter and colleagues developed a method of simultaneously recording ERG signals from a large (up to 256) number of retinal locations.
206 Refraction and Visual AcuityMichael Wall, MD, University of Iowa, Department of Neurology and Ophthalmology; Chris A. Johnson, MD, Devers Eye InstituteA thorough refraction is an essential part of all clinical neuro-ophthalmologic examinations.
207 Diabetic RetinopathyMichael Wall, MD, University of Iowa, Department of Neurology and Ophthalmology; Chris A. Johnson, MD, Devers Eye InstituteTable 2.6
208 Automated PerimetryMichael Wall, MD, University of Iowa, Department of Neurology and Ophthalmology; Chris A. Johnson, MD, Devers Eye InstituteSeveral automated perimetry tests are described.
209 Ocular Examination of the Young ChildMichael Wall, MD, University of Iowa, Department of Neurology and Ophthalmology; Chris A. Johnson, MD, Devers Eye InstituteConfrontation visual field techniques for infants and children can be quite challenging.
210 Ocular Examination of the Young ChildMichael Wall, MD, University of Iowa, Department of Neurology and Ophthalmology; Chris A. Johnson, MD, Devers Eye InstituteVisual acuity measurements in children present special problems, in part because the child wants to do well and please the examiner.
211 Perimetry and Visual Field TestingMichael Wall, MD, University of Iowa, Department of Neurology and Ophthalmology; Chris A. Johnson, MD, Devers Eye InstitutePerimetry and visual field testing have been clinical diagnostic test procedures for more than 150 years.
212 Electroretinogram (ERG)Michael Wall, MD, University of Iowa, Department of Neurology and Ophthalmology; Chris A. Johnson, MD, Devers Eye InstituteThe Swedish physiologist Holmgren reported in 1865 that in vertebrates and higher invertebrates, an alteration in the electric potential occurred when light fell on the retina.
213 Goldmann Manual Projection PerimetryMichael Wall, MD, University of Iowa, Department of Neurology and Ophthalmology; Chris A. Johnson, MD, Devers Eye InstituteThe Goldmann perimeter is a white hemispheric bowl of uniform luminance (31.5 asb) onto which a small bright stimulus is projected.
214 Electrophysiologic TestsMichael Wall, MD, University of Iowa, Department of Neurology and Ophthalmology; Chris A. Johnson, MD, Devers Eye InstituteFrequently, the physician is confronted with a patient who has unexplained loss of vision and an apparently normal fundus examination.
215 StereoacuityMichael Wall, MD, University of Iowa, Department of Neurology and Ophthalmology; Chris A. Johnson, MD, Devers Eye InstituteStereoacuity requires good visual acuity in both eyes and normal cortical development.
216 Visual-Evoked PotentialMichael Wall, MD, University of Iowa, Department of Neurology and Ophthalmology; Chris A. Johnson, MD, Devers Eye InstituteUntil the early 1960s, the electroencephalogram (EEG) was the main technique available for clinical evaluation of electric activity of the human cortex.
217 Tangent (Bjerrum) ScreenMichael Wall, MD, University of Iowa, Department of Neurology and Ophthalmology; Chris A. Johnson, MD, Devers Eye InstituteThe central visual field can be studied in detail using a tangent or Bjerrum screen.
218 Normal Optic DiscMichael Wall, MD, University of Iowa, Department of Neurology and Ophthalmology; Chris A. Johnson, MD, Devers Eye InstituteA fundus examination is essential for evaluating the macula, retina, nerve fiber layer, and optic nerve.
219 Photo Stress TestMichael Wall, MD, University of Iowa, Department of Neurology and Ophthalmology; Chris A. Johnson, MD, Devers Eye InstituteThe differentiation between unilateral retinal disease and retrobulbar optic neuropathy may be aided using the photo stress recovery test described by Glaser et al.
220 Clinical Tests of Color VisionMichael Wall, MD, University of Iowa, Department of Neurology and Ophthalmology; Chris A. Johnson, MD, Devers Eye InstituteAwide variety of color vision tests are available clinically.
221 Visual AcuityMichael Wall, MD, University of Iowa, Department of Neurology and Ophthalmology; Chris A. Johnson, MD, Devers Eye InstituteThe most common measurement of visual function in a clinical setting is visual acuity.
222 Amsler GridMichael Wall, MD, University of Iowa, Department of Neurology and Ophthalmology; Chris A. Johnson, MD, Devers Eye InstituteMark Amsler developed a series of charts, specifically designed to qualitatively analyze the disturbances of visual function which accompany the beginning and evolution of maculopathies.
223 Walsh & Hoyt: Paraneoplastic RetinopathiesDaniel M. Jacobson, MD (1956-2003); Howard D. Pomeranz, MD, Northwell HealthVisual loss from retinal degeneration as a remote effect of systemic cancer was first described in 1976 by Sawyer et al. who reported three patients who initially complained of episodic blurring and dimming of vision, photopsias, and nyctalopia, and who subsequently experienced slowly progressive, b...
224 Walsh & Hoyt: Paraneoplastic Disorders of Voluntary MuscleDaniel M. Jacobson, MD (1956-2003); Howard D. Pomeranz, MD, Northwell HealthSeveral paraneoplastic disorders are characterized by primary damage to voluntary muscle, including polymyositis, dermatomyositis, acute necrotizing myopathy, cachectic myopathy, and endocrine myopathies. Ocular signs and symptoms can occur in each of these syndromes and can even be the presenting m...
225 Walsh & Hoyt: Tonic PupilsDaniel M. Jacobson, MD (1956-2003); Howard D. Pomeranz, MD, Northwell HealthTonic pupils develop as a remote effect of cancer in the following three settings: (a) in patients with autonomic neuropathy, with or without other clinical or electrophysiologic evidence of sensory neuropathy; (b) in patients with the Eaton-Lambert syndrome as a component of the dysautonomia that f...
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