201 - 225 of 2,366
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201 Calcific EmboliKathleen B. Digre, MD, Professor of Neurology and Ophthalmology, Director of Neuro-Ophthalmology, John A. Moran Eye Center, University of Utah School of Medicine; James J. Corbett, MD, University Of MississippiSlideshow describing condition.
202 Occlusion of the Central Retinal ArteryKathleen B. Digre, MD, Professor of Neurology and Ophthalmology, Director of Neuro-Ophthalmology, John A. Moran Eye Center, University of Utah School of Medicine; James J. Corbett, MD, University Of MississippiSlideshow describing condition.
203 Branch Retinal Vein Occlusion (BRVO)Kathleen B. Digre, MD, Professor of Neurology and Ophthalmology, Director of Neuro-Ophthalmology, John A. Moran Eye Center, University of Utah School of Medicine; James J. Corbett, MD, University Of MississippiSlideshow describing condition.
204 CENTRAL RETINAL VEIN OCCLUSIONKathleen B. Digre, MD, Professor of Neurology and Ophthalmology, Director of Neuro-Ophthalmology, John A. Moran Eye Center, University of Utah School of Medicine; James J. Corbett, MD, University Of MississippiSlideshow describing condition.
205 Ischemic Ocular SyndromeKathleen B. Digre, MD, Professor of Neurology and Ophthalmology, Director of Neuro-Ophthalmology, John A. Moran Eye Center, University of Utah School of Medicine; James J. Corbett, MD, University Of MississippiSlideshow describing condition.
206 Viewing the Red ReflexKathleen B. Digre, MD, Professor of Neurology and Ophthalmology, Director of Neuro-Ophthalmology, John A. Moran Eye Center, University of Utah School of Medicine; James J. Corbett, MD, University Of MississippiSlideshow describing eye examination of children.
207 Fat EmboliKathleen B. Digre, MD, Professor of Neurology and Ophthalmology, Director of Neuro-Ophthalmology, John A. Moran Eye Center, University of Utah School of Medicine; James J. Corbett, MD, University Of MississippiSlideshow describing condition.
208 Joint Commission International Accreditation Standards for Ambulatory CareJoint Commission International Accreditation (JCIA)This second edition of the Joint Commission International Accreditation Standards for Ambulatory Care contains all the standards, intent statements, and measurable elements of standards; accreditation policies and procedures; a glossary of key terms; and an index.
209 Symptoms and Signs of Carotid Arterial System IschemiaValérie Biousse, MD Departments of Ophthalmology and Neurology, Emory University School of MedicineIt is now clear that internal carotid artery disease is responsible for a majority of strokes that occur in the territory of that vessel and its major branches. In most cases, the site of disease is in the cervical segment of the artery.
210 Complications Associated With Pseudopapilledema and Disc DrusenMichael C. Brodsky, MD, Mayo Health SystemPeripheral visual field defects develop in 71-75% of eyes with disc drusen (460,471,476,477,495,530). In most cases, the asymptomatic nature of the defects reflects the insidious attrition of optic nerve fibers over decades. Nevertheless, a minority of patients experience episodes of sudden, step-li...
211 Walsh & Hoyt: "Chiasmal Syndrome" of CushingLeonard A. Levin, MD, PhD. Chair of Ophthalmology, McGill UniversityIn 1930, Cushing described the importance of optic atrophy and bitemporal field defects in adults as indicative of tumor when the sella turcica seemed normal in the plain lateral skull x-ray. This syndrome is most often produced by suprasellar meningiomas, aneurysms, and craniopharyngiomas. This not...
212 Walsh & Hoyt: Aneurysms Caused by Infection ("Mycotic" Aneurysms)Barrett J. Katz, MD, MBA, Montefiore Medical CenterBacteria, fungi, spirochetes, and other organisms have the potential to infiltrate the walls of intracranial and other arteries. In some instances, this results in the formation of one or more aneurysms. In 1885, Sir William Osler used the term ""mycotic"" to refer to such aneurysms. Although this t...
213 Walsh & Hoyt: Aneurysms Caused by Infection ("Mycotic" Aneurysms)Steven A. Newman, M.D., University of Virginia School of MedicineInflammatory or infectious processes (including spirochetes, other bacteria, and fungi) may weaken the arterial wall and predispose to aneurysm formation. In 1885, Sir William Osler used the term ""mycotic"" to refer to such aneurysms. Although this term is derived from the Greek word mykes, which m...
214 Walsh & Hoyt: EtiologiesDavid S Zee, M.D., Professor of Neurology, Johns Hopkins University; David Newman-Toker, MD, PhD, Associate Professor, Departments of Neurology, Ophthalmology, & Otolaryngology, The Johns Hopkins University School of MedicineThere are many conditions that produce cerebellar eye signs. These include developmental anomalies, degenerative diseases, vascular diseases, and tumors. Developmental anomalies of the hindbrain. Arnold-Chiari malformation. Dandy-Walker syndrome. Degenerative diseases. Vascular diseases. Mass lesion...
215 Walsh & Hoyt: Skew Deviation and the Ocular Tilt ReactionDavid S Zee, M.D., Professor of Neurology, Johns Hopkins University; David Newman-Toker, MD, PhD, Associate Professor, Departments of Neurology, Ophthalmology, & Otolaryngology, The Johns Hopkins University School of MedicineSkew deviation is a vertical misalignment of the visual axes caused by a disturbance of prenuclear vestibular inputs to the oculomotor nuclei. Torsional and horizontal deviations may be associated findings. The hypertropia may be the same (comitant) in all positions of gaze, or it may vary and even ...
216 Walsh & Hoyt: Other Diseases of Basal GangliaDavid S Zee, M.D., Professor of Neurology, Johns Hopkins University; David Newman-Toker, MD, PhD, Associate Professor, Departments of Neurology, Ophthalmology, & Otolaryngology, The Johns Hopkins University School of MedicineA number of conditions other than Parkinsons and Huntingtons that affect the basal ganglia cause abnormal eye movements. Hepatolenticular degeneration (Wilsons disease) and juvenile dystonic lipidosis (Niemann-Pick type 2s) are discussed below. Other conditions include caudate hemorrhage, which has ...
217 Walsh & Hoyt: Location of Lesions and Their ManifestationsDavid S Zee, M.D., Professor of Neurology, Johns Hopkins University; David Newman-Toker, MD, PhD, Associate Professor, Departments of Neurology, Ophthalmology, & Otolaryngology, The Johns Hopkins University School of MedicineExperimental lesions of the dorsal vermis (lobules VI and VII) and of the underlying fastigial nuclei (called the fastigial oculomotor region) cause saccadic dysmetria, typically hypometria if the vermis alone is involved and hypermetria if the deep nuclei are affected. Pursuit, especially the initi...
218 Walsh & Hoyt: Ocular Motor Manifestations of Some Metabolic DisordersDavid S Zee, M.D., Professor of Neurology, Johns Hopkins University; David Newman-Toker, MD, PhD, Associate Professor, Departments of Neurology, Ophthalmology, & Otolaryngology, The Johns Hopkins University School of MedicineSome babies who ultimately develop normally show transient ocular motor disturbances, including upward or downward deviation of the eyes (but with a full range of reflex vertical movement), intermittent opsoclonus, and skew deviation. The last may be associated with the eventual development of horiz...
219 Walsh & Hoyt: Eye Movements in Stupor and ComaDavid S Zee, M.D., Professor of Neurology, Johns Hopkins University; David Newman-Toker, MD, PhD, Associate Professor, Departments of Neurology, Ophthalmology, & Otolaryngology, The Johns Hopkins University School of MedicineThe ocular motor examination is especially useful for evaluating the unconscious patient, because both arousal and eye movements are controlled by neurons in the brain stem reticular formation. Comatose patients do not make eye movements that depend upon cortical visual processing. Voluntary saccade...
220 Walsh & Hoyt: Slow Saccades from Pontine LesionsDavid S Zee, M.D., Professor of Neurology, Johns Hopkins University; David Newman-Toker, MD, PhD, Associate Professor, Departments of Neurology, Ophthalmology, & Otolaryngology, The Johns Hopkins University School of MedicineSlow saccades are characteristic of many degenerative and metabolic diseases. Horizontal saccades may be slowed in patients with spinocerebellar degenerations; vertical saccades are often relatively less affected in such patients. In diseases that principally affect the midbrain, such as progressive...
221 Walsh & Hoyt: Focal LesionsDavid S Zee, M.D., Professor of Neurology, Johns Hopkins University; David Newman-Toker, MD, PhD, Associate Professor, Departments of Neurology, Ophthalmology, & Otolaryngology, The Johns Hopkins University School of MedicineOcular motor disturbances that occur from focal lesions of the cerebral hemispheres depend on a variety of factors, including the location and size of the lesion and whether the lesion is unilateral or bilateral. Occipital lobe lesions. Parietal lobe lesions. Temporal lobe lesions. Frontal lobe lesi...
222 Walsh & Hoyt: Saccadic Oscillations from Pontine LesionsDavid S Zee, M.D., Professor of Neurology, Johns Hopkins University; David Newman-Toker, MD, PhD, Associate Professor, Departments of Neurology, Ophthalmology, & Otolaryngology, The Johns Hopkins University School of MedicineSaccadic oscillations that lack an intersaccadic interval, such as opsoclonus and ocular flutter, probably result from pontine lesions in the pause cell region. A number of other mechanisms are possible, however. Macrosaccadic oscillations (an extreme form of saccadic dysmetria) also occur with pont...
223 Walsh & Hoyt: Ocular Motor Dysfunction and Multiple SclerosisDavid S Zee, M.D., Professor of Neurology, Johns Hopkins University; David Newman-Toker, MD, PhD, Associate Professor, Departments of Neurology, Ophthalmology, & Otolaryngology, The Johns Hopkins University School of MedicineMS causes a variety of ocular motor deficits; bilateral INO, cerebellar eye signs (including gaze-evoked nystagmus), and acquired pendular nystagmus are the most common. Pendular or elliptical nystagmus is a frequent disabling manifestation of the disease. Measurement of eye movements may help estab...
224 Walsh & Hoyt: Ocular Motor Syndromes Caused by Lesions in the MedullaDavid S Zee, M.D., Professor of Neurology, Johns Hopkins University; David Newman-Toker, MD, PhD, Associate Professor, Departments of Neurology, Ophthalmology, & Otolaryngology, The Johns Hopkins University School of MedicineMany structures within the medulla are important in the control of eye movements: the vestibular nuclei, perihypoglossal nuclei, and inferior olive and its outflow pathway through the inferior cerebellar peduncle. The perihypoglossal nuclei consist of the nucleus prepositus hypoglossi (NPH), which l...
225 Walsh & Hoyt: Parkinson's DiseaseDavid S Zee, M.D., Professor of Neurology, Johns Hopkins University; David Newman-Toker, MD, PhD, Associate Professor, Departments of Neurology, Ophthalmology, & Otolaryngology, The Johns Hopkins University School of MedicinePatients with Parkinsons disease may show a number of ocular motor findings. Steady fixation is often disrupted by square-wave jerks. Upward gaze is often moderately restricted, although this abnormality frequently is observed in normal, elderly persons. Convergence insufficiency is a common and oft...
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