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201 Three Critical Vertical Pathways: Neuroanatomy Video Lab - Brain DissectionsSuzanne S. Stensaas, PhD, Professor Emeritus, Department of Neurobiology and Anatomy School of Medicine, University of UtahThere is one motor and two sensory pathways that must be mastered. Pain and temperature from the body travel together and vibration and proprioception travel in another pathway each reaching perception in the cortex. Voluntary motor control starts in the cerebral cortex and connects with a motor neu...
202 The Most Important Pathway: Motor Control: Neuroanatomy Video Lab - Brain DissectionsSuzanne S. Stensaas, PhD, Professor Emeritus, Department of Neurobiology and Anatomy School of Medicine, University of UtahThe origin of the corticospinal tract in the cerebral cortex is traced through gross sections of the hemisphere and brain stem to the spinal cord. Using an animation, the terms upper and lower motor neuron are defined and clinical signs and symptom listed.
203 Hypothalamus: Neuroanatomy Video Lab - Brain DissectionsSuzanne S. Stensaas, PhD, Professor Emeritus, Department of Neurobiology and Anatomy School of Medicine, University of UtahGross specimens are used to demonstrate the area of the hypothalamus and its relationship to surrounding structures. Both endocrine and autonomic functions are explored using diagrams. Mention is made of the direct hypothalamic response to circulating hormones and other substances such as sodium. Th...
204 Olfactory System: Neuroanatomy Video Lab - Brain DissectionsSuzanne S. Stensaas, PhD, Professor Emeritus, Department of Neurobiology and Anatomy School of Medicine, University of UtahBeginning with the location of the sensory cells within the skull the axons are traced into the cranial cavity. Demonstration of the olfactory bulb, olfactory tract and it termination in the forebrain and temporal lobe are indicated. Trauma and meningiomas can produce loss of small (anosmia). Degene...
205 Limbic System: Neuroanatomy Video Lab - Brain DissectionsSuzanne S. Stensaas, PhD, Professor Emeritus, Department of Neurobiology and Anatomy School of Medicine, University of UtahThe decision was made to present a simplified description of a much more complex system using animations to construct a 3D image. Papez circuit is shown on gross specimens with mention of its involvement in memory. The role of the amygdala in fear and the olfactory cortex in temporal lobe epilepsy a...
206 The Visual Pathway: Neuroanatomy Video Lab - Brain DissectionsSuzanne S. Stensaas, PhD, Professor Emeritus, Department of Neurobiology and Anatomy School of Medicine, University of UtahA brief review of the anatomy of the eye and the photic stimulation of the receptors is followed by a gross exploration of the visual pathway from the optic nerve, chiasm, and tract to the thalamus stressing how the left part of the visual world reaches the right hemisphere. Visual fields are relate...
207 The Normal Unfixed Brain: Neuroanatomy Video Lab - Brain DissectionsSuzanne S. Stensaas, PhD, Professor Emeritus, Department of Neurobiology and Anatomy School of Medicine, University of UtahThe consistency and vulnerability of the brain is demonstrated along with the clear and glistening pia and arachnoid and the tough dura. The cushioning function of the CSF is stressed and the features are pointed out on the ventral surface. The uncus and temporal lobes are normal with arteries free ...
208 Orientation: The Planes of the Brain: Neuroanatomy Video Lab - Brain DissectionsSuzanne S. Stensaas, PhD, Professor Emeritus, Department of Neurobiology and Anatomy School of Medicine, University of UtahTerms such as anterior, posterior, inferior and superior are introduced with respect to the hemispheres as well as the brain stem. Terms such as rostral and caudal or dorsal and ventral can mean different things in different areas. Sections in three planes (frontal, axial, and sagittal) are demonstr...
209 The Meninges: Neuroanatomy Video Lab - Brain DissectionsSuzanne S. Stensaas, PhD, Professor Emeritus, Department of Neurobiology and Anatomy School of Medicine, University of UtahThe epidural, subdural and subarachnoid spaces are demonstrated and discussed with respect to trauma and disease. The relationship of the brainstem and cerebellum to the tentorium demonstrates the vulnerability of the brain stem to increased supratentorial pressure and herniation. Arachnoid granulat...
210 Cranial Nerves: Neuroanatomy Video Lab - Brain DissectionsSuzanne S. Stensaas, PhD, Professor Emeritus, Department of Neurobiology and Anatomy School of Medicine, University of UtahThe approach is to learn to associate the cranial nerves with their brainstem level and blood supply. Emphasis is given to the midbrain (3, 4), pons (5, 6, 7, 8), medulla (9, 10, 11, 12) and their most important functions.
211 The Ventricles: Neuroanatomy Video Lab - Brain DissectionsSuzanne S. Stensaas, PhD, Professor Emeritus, Department of Neurobiology and Anatomy School of Medicine, University of UtahThe ventricles are demonstrated and named on a model cast as well as in rotating 3D reconstructions. The production, function, circulation and removal of CSF produced by the choroid plexus is discussed using a diagram and then reviewed on frontal, axial and sagittal brain specimens and corresponding...
212 Comparison of the Motor Systems: Neuroanatomy Video Lab - Brain DissectionsSuzanne S. Stensaas, PhD, Professor Emeritus, Department of Neurobiology and Anatomy School of Medicine, University of UtahA comparison of the three major motor systems focuses on categorizing motor problems as corticospinal tract, cerebellar, or basal ganglia. It begins with 12 minutes of gross anatomical structures and pathway review followed by clinical video clips demonstrating clinical features of disease of each o...
213 Basal Ganglia: Neuroanatomy Video Lab - Brain DissectionsSuzanne S. Stensaas, PhD, Professor Emeritus, Department of Neurobiology and Anatomy School of Medicine, University of UtahStructures involved in involuntary movements are shown on models, in animations, and on gross coronal and axial sections. Diagrams show the cortex-to-cortex loop and the nigrostriatal pathway. The direct and indirect pathways are shown. The direct pathway facilitates movement while the indirect path...
214 Cortical Localization: Neuroanatomy Video Lab - Brain DissectionsSuzanne S. Stensaas, PhD, Professor Emeritus, Department of Neurobiology and Anatomy School of Medicine, University of UtahThe lobes of the brain are defined together with their major functions. The visual field representation in the occipital lobe is explained with a diagram. Speech areas and the major types of aphasia are discussed in the dominant hemisphere and parietal lesions of neglect and spatial orientation are ...
215 Introduction: Neuroanatomy Video Lab - Brain DissectionsSuzanne S. Stensaas, PhD, Professor Emeritus, Department of Neurobiology and Anatomy School of Medicine, University of UtahThe regions and lobes of the brain are identified along with some of the nerves and vessels. The basic functions of the cortex of each lobe are introduced along with principal sulci and gyri. The importance of the left hemisphere for language and the temporal lobe in memory are mentioned along with ...
216 Control of the Pupil: Neuroanatomy Video Lab - Brain DissectionsSuzanne S. Stensaas, PhD, Professor Emeritus, Department of Neurobiology and Anatomy School of Medicine, University of UtahThrough diagrams, animations and gross specimens the constriction and dilation of the pupil by the autonomic nervous system are described. Both the parasympathetic and sympathetic control are traced and the importance of a constricted pupil, Horner's Syndrome, and temporal lobe (uncal) herniation (d...
217 Sensation from the Body: Neuroanatomy Video Lab - Brain DissectionsSuzanne S. Stensaas, PhD, Professor Emeritus, Department of Neurobiology and Anatomy School of Medicine, University of UtahSensation consists of various modalities, which tend to travel in one of two pathways. The Anterolateral System also known as the Spinothalamic Tract carries pain and temperature. The Dorsal Column-Medical Lemniscus Pathway carries vibration, joint position, and fine 2-point discrimination. Light or...
218 Sensation from the Face: Neuroanatomy Video Lab - Brain DissectionsSuzanne S. Stensaas, PhD, Professor Emeritus, Department of Neurobiology and Anatomy School of Medicine, University of UtahSensation from the face travels in one of two pathways both of which eventually converge to form the trigeminothalamic tract that reaches the thalamus. The tract that carries pain and temperature is confusing because it first descends before crossing while the equivalent of Dorsal Column-Medical Lem...
219 Vestibular System: Neuroanatomy Video Lab - Brain DissectionsSuzanne S. Stensaas, PhD, Professor Emeritus, Department of Neurobiology and Anatomy School of Medicine, University of UtahDiagrams, models and skull preparations are used to describe the vestibular apparatus. The semicircular canals, saccule and utricle are described as well as transduction by the hair cells in the ampullae and maculae. Gross material emphasizes the nerve, vestibular nuclei and connections through the ...
220 Auditory System: Neuroanatomy Video Lab - Brain DissectionsSuzanne S. Stensaas, PhD, Professor Emeritus, Department of Neurobiology and Anatomy School of Medicine, University of UtahThe anatomy of the middle ear and cochlea are shown using models and diagrams explaining the process of air-fluid transmission and finally transduction by hair cells. Gross specimens demonstrate the cochlear nerve and its brain stem relays and crossings all the way to auditory cortex. Wernicke's are...
221 Cerebellum: Neuroanatomy Video Lab - Brain DissectionsSuzanne S. Stensaas, PhD, Professor Emeritus, Department of Neurobiology and Anatomy School of Medicine, University of UtahThe gross features of the cerebellum are shown. The three peduncles are demonstrated, noting their input and output to and from the cerebellum. Emphasis is given to symptoms of cerebellar disease appearing on the same side of the body. Special emphasis is given to cortical-cerebellar connections, st...
222 Brain Stem & Reflexes: Neuroanatomy Video Lab - Brain DissectionsSuzanne S. Stensaas, PhD, Professor Emeritus, Department of Neurobiology and Anatomy School of Medicine, University of UtahThe cranial nerves are reviewed again on a specimen with vessels. Next, landmarks on gross brain stem sections are shown. Stressed are the three reflexes associated with each of the three levels: pupillary, corneal and gag reflexes and their associated cranial nerves. Finally cross sections of myeli...
223 Cerebral Circulation: Neuroanatomy Video Lab - Brain DissectionsSuzanne S. Stensaas, PhD, Professor Emeritus, Department of Neurobiology and Anatomy School of Medicine, University of UtahThe major vessels of the anterior and posterior circulation are demonstrated along with the Circle of Willis on both a model and in an animation. The distribution of the three major cerebral arteries is demonstrated along with the concept of a watershed zone. A gross specimen with good vessels is al...
224 Skew Deviation and the Ocular Tilt ResponseDavid Newman-Toker, MD, PhD, Associate Professor, Departments of Neurology, Ophthalmology, & Otolaryngology, The Johns Hopkins University School of MedicineThe objectives of this presentation are to provide an understanding of the current use of the terms "ocular tilt reaction" and "skew deviation," to create some familiarity with the anatomic and physiologic substrate of ocular tilt and skew, and to demonstrate how to distinguish between skew and isol...
225 Bilateral acquired Brown's syndromeRyan D. Walsh, MDDepartment of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, The Eye Institute, Medical College of Wisconsin; Department of Neurology, Medical College of Wisconsin; Collin McClelland, MDDepartments of Ophthalmology and Visual Neurosciences. University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota.A 27 year old female with a history of Sjogren's syndrome reported a 2 year history of a vertical binocular diplopia with looking up-and-to-the right. She has also noticed an audible "click" when positioning her eyes in this direction. As depicted in the video, when attempting to look up-and-to-the...
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