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201 Motility DisturbancesAAO/NANOS - American Academy of Ophthalmology / North American Neuro-Ophthalmology SocietySkew deviation is a vertical deviation that is not localized to any one muscle or muscle group. The deviation may be comitant or not, and intermittent or constant. Skew deviation is often defined by the company it keeps, that is, skew usually occurs in association with other brain-stem signs, and is...
202 Ocular Manifestations of Systemic DisordersAAO/NANOS - American Academy of Ophthalmology / North American Neuro-Ophthalmology SocietyMyasthenia gravis should be considered in any patient with painless, pupil-spared, nonapoptotic ophthalmoplegia. It may mimic any ophthalmoparesis. Involvement of the medical rectus may result in a pseudointernuclear ophthalmoplegia. Pair with 96_24 and 96_25.
203 Ocular Manifestations of Systemic DisordersAAO/NANOS - American Academy of Ophthalmology / North American Neuro-Ophthalmology SocietyMyasthenia gravis should be considered in any patient with painless, pupil-spared, nonapoptotic ophthalmoplegia. It may mimic any ophthalmoparesis. Involvement of the medical rectus may result in a pseudointernuclear ophthalmoplegia. Pair with 96_23 and 96_25.
204 Ocular Manifestations of Systemic DisordersAAO/NANOS - American Academy of Ophthalmology / North American Neuro-Ophthalmology SocietyMyasthenia gravis should be considered in any patient with painless, pupil-spared, nonapoptotic ophthalmoplegia. It may mimic any ophthalmoparesis. Involvement of the medical rectus may result in a pseudointernuclear ophthalmoplegia. Pair with 96_23 and 96_24.
205 Motility DisturbancesAAO/NANOS - American Academy of Ophthalmology / North American Neuro-Ophthalmology SocietyTraumatic damage to the third cranial nerve may result in aberrant regeneration of fibers that innervate the eyelid, pupil, or extraocular muscles. For instance, there may be lid retraction in attempted downgaze. Any combination of aberrant activation of third nerve-innervated structures may occur, ...
206 Isolated Optic Neuritis/NeuropathyAAO/NANOS - American Academy of Ophthalmology / North American Neuro-Ophthalmology SocietyPapilledema in pseudotumor cerebri may result in adjacent choroidal or retinal folds.
207 Isolated Optic Neuritis/NeuropathyAAO/NANOS - American Academy of Ophthalmology / North American Neuro-Ophthalmology SocietyPapilledema may produce visual loss due to chronic atrophic papilledema, secondary macular hemorrhage, exudate or edema, secondary ischemic optic neuropathy, or secondary subretinal neovascular membrane formation.
208 Isolated Optic Neuritis/NeuropathyAAO/NANOS - American Academy of Ophthalmology / North American Neuro-Ophthalmology SocietyPapilledema is a term reserved for optic disc edema related to increased intracranial pressure. Fluid within the optic nerve sheath or elevation of the intraocular optic nerve head may be visible on magnetic resonance imaging studies of the head and orbit.
209 Ocular Manifestations of Systemic DisordersAAO/NANOS - American Academy of Ophthalmology / North American Neuro-Ophthalmology SocietyThyroid eye disease may cause proptosis and extraocular muscle enlargement that may be seen on orbital imaging studies. In general, coronal images allow the best visualization of the extraocular muscle enlargement. Pair with 94_45 and 94_46.
210 Ocular Manifestations of Systemic DisordersAAO/NANOS - American Academy of Ophthalmology / North American Neuro-Ophthalmology SocietyThyroid eye disease may cause proptosis and extraocular muscle enlargement that may be seen on orbital imaging studies. In general, coronal images allow the best visualization of the extraocular muscle enlargement. Pair with 94_44 and 94_46.
211 Ocular Manifestations of Systemic DisordersAAO/NANOS - American Academy of Ophthalmology / North American Neuro-Ophthalmology SocietyThyroid eye disease may cause proptosis and extraocular muscle enlargement that may be seen on orbital imaging studies. In general, coronal images allow the best visualization of the extraocular muscle enlargement. Pair with 94_44 and 94_45.
212 Ocular Manifestations of Systemic DisordersAAO/NANOS - American Academy of Ophthalmology / North American Neuro-Ophthalmology SocietyThyroid eye disease may result in proptosis and restrictive external ophthalmoplegia. The extracoular muscles are often diffusely enlarged with sparing of the tendons.
213 Ocular Manifestations of Systemic DisordersAAO/NANOS - American Academy of Ophthalmology / North American Neuro-Ophthalmology SocietyThyroid eye disease can result in significant upper eyelid retraction and axial proptosis resulting in exposure keratopathy.
214 Motility DisturbancesAAO/NANOS - American Academy of Ophthalmology / North American Neuro-Ophthalmology SocietyCyclical oculomotor paresis may occur in patients as an intermittent phenomenon, with a paretic phase and diplopia and intervals that are nonparetic. The history and examination are classic for the disorder. Pair with Images 95_19 and 95_20.
215 Motility DisturbancesAAO/NANOS - American Academy of Ophthalmology / North American Neuro-Ophthalmology SocietyCyclical oculomotor paresis may occur in patients as an intermittent phenomenon, with a paretic phase and diplopia and intervals that are nonparetic. The history and examination are classic for the disorder. Pair with Images 95_18 and 95_20.
216 Motility DisturbancesAAO/NANOS - American Academy of Ophthalmology / North American Neuro-Ophthalmology SocietyCyclical oculomotor paresis may occur in patients as an intermittent phenomenon, with a paretic phase and diplopia and intervals that are nonparetic. The history and examination are classic for the disorder. Pair with Images 95_18 and 95_19.
217 Neuro-Ophthalmic Imaging-MRIAAO/NANOS - American Academy of Ophthalmology / North American Neuro-Ophthalmology SocietyAneurisms may result in neuro-ophthalmologic sign and symptoms by direct compression of the afferent or efferent systems or by the secondary effects of hemorrhage. Basilar aneurisms may result in ocular motor deficits such as a unilateral or bilateral third nerve palsy.
218 Neuro-Ophthalmic Imaging-MRIAAO/NANOS - American Academy of Ophthalmology / North American Neuro-Ophthalmology SocietyAneurisms may result in neuro-ophthalmologic sign and symptoms by direct compression of the afferent or efferent systems or by the secondary effects of hemorrhage. Basilar aneurisms may result in ocular motor deficits such as a unilateral or bilateral third nerve palsy.
219 Acquired Disc ChangesAAO/NANOS - American Academy of Ophthalmology / North American Neuro-Ophthalmology SocietyAlthough optociliary shunt vessels are venous collaterals that form in response to chronic venous obstruction, they may occur in patients with chronic open-angle glaucoma.
220 Acquired Disc ChangesAAO/NANOS - American Academy of Ophthalmology / North American Neuro-Ophthalmology SocietyOptociliary shunt vessels are venous collaterals that form in response to chronic venous obstruction. They may occur in patients following central retinal vein occlusion.
221 Acquired Disc ChangesAAO/NANOS - American Academy of Ophthalmology / North American Neuro-Ophthalmology SocietyAlthough optociliary shunt vessels are venous collaterals that typically form in response to chronic venous obstruction, they may occur on a congenital basis as seen here.
222 Acquired Disc ChangesAAO/NANOS - American Academy of Ophthalmology / North American Neuro-Ophthalmology SocietyOptociliary shunt vessels are venous collaterals that form after chronic venous obstruction. The presence of optic atrophy, progressive visual loss, and optociliary shunt vessels may indicate a compressive optic nerve lesion such as meningioma.
223 Neuro-Ophthalmic Manifestations of Brain TumorsAAO/NANOS - American Academy of Ophthalmology / North American Neuro-Ophthalmology SocietyChordomas of the clivus may result in diplopia due to a sixth nerve palsy. The sixth nerve runs up the clivus and may be the presenting manifestation of the lesion. Pair with Images 97_34, 97_35, and 97_36.
224 Neuro-Ophthalmic Manifestations of Brain TumorsAAO/NANOS - American Academy of Ophthalmology / North American Neuro-Ophthalmology SocietyChordomas of the clivus may result in diplopia due to a sixth nerve palsy. The sixth nerve runs up the clivus and may be the presenting manifestation of the lesion. Pair with Images 97_33, 97_34, and 97_35.
225 Neuro-Ophthalmic Vascular DiseaseAAO/NANOS - American Academy of Ophthalmology / North American Neuro-Ophthalmology SocietyArteriovenous malformations are dysplastic vascular channels. They may result in neuro-ophthalmologic findings from direct compressive effects, secondary hemorrhage, or secondary seizure disorder. CT and/or MRI may demonstrate the lesion, but cerebral arteriography is usually required to better defi...
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