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201 Ocular Manifestations of Systemic DisordersAAO/NANOS - American Academy of Ophthalmology / North American Neuro-Ophthalmology SocietyThyroid eye disease may result in proptosis and restrictive external ophthalmoplegia. The extracoular muscles are often diffusely enlarged with sparing of the tendons.
202 Ocular Manifestations of Systemic DisordersAAO/NANOS - American Academy of Ophthalmology / North American Neuro-Ophthalmology SocietyThyroid eye disease can result in significant upper eyelid retraction and axial proptosis resulting in exposure keratopathy.
203 Motility DisturbancesAAO/NANOS - American Academy of Ophthalmology / North American Neuro-Ophthalmology SocietyCyclical oculomotor paresis may occur in patients as an intermittent phenomenon, with a paretic phase and diplopia and intervals that are nonparetic. The history and examination are classic for the disorder. Pair with Images 95_19 and 95_20.
204 Motility DisturbancesAAO/NANOS - American Academy of Ophthalmology / North American Neuro-Ophthalmology SocietyCyclical oculomotor paresis may occur in patients as an intermittent phenomenon, with a paretic phase and diplopia and intervals that are nonparetic. The history and examination are classic for the disorder. Pair with Images 95_18 and 95_20.
205 Motility DisturbancesAAO/NANOS - American Academy of Ophthalmology / North American Neuro-Ophthalmology SocietyCyclical oculomotor paresis may occur in patients as an intermittent phenomenon, with a paretic phase and diplopia and intervals that are nonparetic. The history and examination are classic for the disorder. Pair with Images 95_18 and 95_19.
206 Neuro-Ophthalmic Imaging-MRIAAO/NANOS - American Academy of Ophthalmology / North American Neuro-Ophthalmology SocietyAneurisms may result in neuro-ophthalmologic sign and symptoms by direct compression of the afferent or efferent systems or by the secondary effects of hemorrhage. Basilar aneurisms may result in ocular motor deficits such as a unilateral or bilateral third nerve palsy.
207 Neuro-Ophthalmic Imaging-MRIAAO/NANOS - American Academy of Ophthalmology / North American Neuro-Ophthalmology SocietyAneurisms may result in neuro-ophthalmologic sign and symptoms by direct compression of the afferent or efferent systems or by the secondary effects of hemorrhage. Basilar aneurisms may result in ocular motor deficits such as a unilateral or bilateral third nerve palsy.
208 Acquired Disc ChangesAAO/NANOS - American Academy of Ophthalmology / North American Neuro-Ophthalmology SocietyAlthough optociliary shunt vessels are venous collaterals that form in response to chronic venous obstruction, they may occur in patients with chronic open-angle glaucoma.
209 Acquired Disc ChangesAAO/NANOS - American Academy of Ophthalmology / North American Neuro-Ophthalmology SocietyOptociliary shunt vessels are venous collaterals that form in response to chronic venous obstruction. They may occur in patients following central retinal vein occlusion.
210 Acquired Disc ChangesAAO/NANOS - American Academy of Ophthalmology / North American Neuro-Ophthalmology SocietyAlthough optociliary shunt vessels are venous collaterals that typically form in response to chronic venous obstruction, they may occur on a congenital basis as seen here.
211 Acquired Disc ChangesAAO/NANOS - American Academy of Ophthalmology / North American Neuro-Ophthalmology SocietyOptociliary shunt vessels are venous collaterals that form after chronic venous obstruction. The presence of optic atrophy, progressive visual loss, and optociliary shunt vessels may indicate a compressive optic nerve lesion such as meningioma.
212 Neuro-Ophthalmic Manifestations of Brain TumorsAAO/NANOS - American Academy of Ophthalmology / North American Neuro-Ophthalmology SocietyChordomas of the clivus may result in diplopia due to a sixth nerve palsy. The sixth nerve runs up the clivus and may be the presenting manifestation of the lesion. Pair with Images 97_34, 97_35, and 97_36.
213 Neuro-Ophthalmic Manifestations of Brain TumorsAAO/NANOS - American Academy of Ophthalmology / North American Neuro-Ophthalmology SocietyChordomas of the clivus may result in diplopia due to a sixth nerve palsy. The sixth nerve runs up the clivus and may be the presenting manifestation of the lesion. Pair with Images 97_33, 97_34, and 97_35.
214 Neuro-Ophthalmic Vascular DiseaseAAO/NANOS - American Academy of Ophthalmology / North American Neuro-Ophthalmology SocietyArteriovenous malformations are dysplastic vascular channels. They may result in neuro-ophthalmologic findings from direct compressive effects, secondary hemorrhage, or secondary seizure disorder. CT and/or MRI may demonstrate the lesion, but cerebral arteriography is usually required to better defi...
215 Ocular Manifestations of Congenital/Inherited DiseasesAAO/NANOS - American Academy of Ophthalmology / North American Neuro-Ophthalmology SocietyNeurofibromatosis, type 1, is an autosomal dominant phakomatosis characterized by Lisch nodules of the iris (hamartomas) plexiform neurofibromas, café-au-lait spots on the skin, and axillary freckling. Intracranial tumors such as optic pathway gliomas may occur.
216 Ocular Manifestations of Congenital/Inherited DiseasesAAO/NANOS - American Academy of Ophthalmology / North American Neuro-Ophthalmology SocietyTuberous sclerosis is an autosomal dominant phakomatosis characterized by astrocytic hamartomas of the retina or optic nerve, adenoma sebaceum of the face, periungual fibromas, and astrocytic hamartomas of the brain, with secondary seizures and mental retardation
217 Ocular Manifestations of Congenital/Inherited DiseasesAAO/NANOS - American Academy of Ophthalmology / North American Neuro-Ophthalmology SocietyTuberous sclerosis is an autosomal dominant phakomatosis characterized by astrocytic hamartomas of the retina or optic nerve, adenoma sebaceum of the face, periungual fibromas, and astrocytic hamartomas of the brain, with secondary seizures and mental re
218 Ocular Disease with Retinal FindingsAAO/NANOS - American Academy of Ophthalmology / North American Neuro-Ophthalmology SocietyChoroidal folds may result from choroidal tumors, compression on the eye wall from thyroid ophthalmopathy, orbital pseudotumor, orbital tumor, posterior scleritis, hypotony, scleral laceration, retinal detachment, marked hyperopia, or secondary to papilledema. Intraocular pressure measurements, refr...
219 Isolated congenital optic disc anomaliesAAO/NANOS - American Academy of Ophthalmology / North American Neuro-Ophthalmology SocietyThis image shows drusen that are especially prominent superotemporally. Pair with 92_64 and 92_67.
220 Optic disc drusen, fluorescein angiogramAAO/NANOS - American Academy of Ophthalmology / North American Neuro-Ophthalmology SocietyImages 92_64 and 92_67 demonstrate the characteristics of optic disc drusen on flourescein angiography. This image shows the early arteriovenous phase, with irregular dye uptake and focal hypoflourescence superotemporally. Pair with 92_63 and 92_67
221 Optic nerve drusen, late fluorescein angiogramAAO/NANOS - American Academy of Ophthalmology / North American Neuro-Ophthalmology SocietyImages 92_64 and 92_67 demonstrate the characteristics of optic disc drusen on flourescein angiography. This image displays the nodular staining of the drusen without leakage. Pair with 92_63 and 92_64.
222 Isolated congenital optic disc anomaliesAAO/NANOS - American Academy of Ophthalmology / North American Neuro-Ophthalmology SocietyThis is a photograph of peripheral drusen. The paired image 92_69 demonstrates the typical autofluorescence.
223 Optic disc drusen autofluorescenceAAO/NANOS - American Academy of Ophthalmology / North American Neuro-Ophthalmology SocietyThis case of optic disc drusen demonstrates the typical autofluorescence. Pair with 92_68.
224 Congenitally Tilted Optic DiscAAO/NANOS - American Academy of Ophthalmology / North American Neuro-Ophthalmology SocietyColobomas or defects of the optic nerve may exhibit spontaneous pulsations.
225 Ocular Manifestations of Congenital/Inherited DiseasesAAO/NANOS - American Academy of Ophthalmology / North American Neuro-Ophthalmology SocietyImage shows a patient with the Laurence-Moon-Biedl syndrome, an autosomal recessive syndrome characterized by obesity, mental retardation, retinitis pigmentosa (see Image 91_07), polydactyly, and hypogonadism. Pair with 91_07.
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