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176 Relationship between age and pupil sizeRelationship between age and pupil size, determined using an infrared flash photograph technique with subjects placed in darkness for 3 minutes. The numbers above the abscissa indicate the number of subjects tested in each age range. (Reprinted with permission of Loewenfeld IE: "Simple, central" ani...Image/StillImage
177 Retinal Fluorescein AngiographyThis slide set provides a brief description of Retinal Fluorescein Angiography. First introduced in 1960, sodium fluorescein, a dye, is administered through an angiocatheter (3-5cc) by a nurse or technician. The dye reaches the central retinal artery after passing through the heart and lungs.Text
178 Retinitis pigmentosa disease of rodsDiscussion of retinitis pigmentosa which is a retinal/choroidal degeneration caused by various genetic defects.Text
179 Retino-choroidal Vessels or Optociliary veins or ciliary shuntOverview of retino-choroidal collaterals, which are potential telangiectatic connections between the retina and choroidal circulation. Although sometimes called "shunts", these collaterals are between the retinal venous circulation and the choroidal venous circulation.Text
180 Retraction NystagmusPatient with retraction nystagmus (no audio)Image/MovingImage
181 Right-sided pseudo-Horner's syndromeRight-sided pseudo-Horner's syndrome in an 8-month-old infant referred because her mother had noted a larger pupil on the left for a few months and her pediatrician thought the right upper lid was droopy. Both pupils reacted normally to light and darkness, the degree of anisocoria was similar in bot...Image/StillImage
182 Right-sided relative afferent pupillary defectRight-sided relative afferent pupillary defect in a man with optic nerve glioma. When the unaffected left eye is stimulated by light, both pupils constrict (top). When the light is then swung over to the affected right eye, both pupils dilate (bottom). This indicates that pupillomotor conduction thr...Image/StillImage
183 Rotary DownbeatPatient with rotary downbeat nystagmus (no audio)Image/MovingImage
184 Rotary NystagmusExample of a patient with rotary nystagmus, showing occasional counterclockwise rotary movements of both eyes. Seen more in intrinsic disorders of the brainstem.Image/MovingImage
185 Sector Palsies and Light-Near DissociationExample of patient with bilateral Adie's pupils. Exam is performed with a slit-lamp. Shows iris stroma and focal segments of iris sphincter that retain their contractilty. Suggests post-ganglionic parasympathetic denervation.Image/MovingImage
186 See-Saw Nystagmus7-year-old female whose mother noticed her eyes "bouncing" for 2 months. Visual acuity 20/70 OD and 20/40 OS, reduced color vision OU, and no afferent pupillary defect. See-saw nystagmus documented with videography. Manual perimetry revealed a complete right homonymous hemianopia. MRI revealed a lar...Image/MovingImage
187 See-Saw NystagmusExample of a patient with see-saw nystagmus, showing how one eye elevates as the other depresses, with the elevating eye intorting as the depressing eye extorts. Shows vertical oscillations with pendular waveforms. Suggests a large structural lesion in the pericellar region (associated with bi-tempo...Image/MovingImage
188 See-saw Nystagmus MRI 1MRI; See-saw NystagmusImage
189 See-saw Nystagmus MRI 2MRI; See-saw NystagmusImage
190 Shaken Baby SyndromeText
191 Shunt Vessel MeningiomaRETINO-CHOROIDAL (OPTO-CILIARY) COLLATERAL VESSELS: (also known as Retinal-choroidal venous collaterals, opticociliary veins or ciliary shunt vessels) Retino-choroidal collaterals are potential telangiectatic connections between the retina and choroidal circulation. Although sometimes called "shunts...Image
192 Shunt Vessel Meningioma - MRIMeningiomas block venous egress and open potential venous channels known as retinochoroidal (optociliary) collateral vein. This meningioma extends from the back of the globe through the optic canal.Image
193 Spasm of the Near ReflexExample of patient with spasm of the near reflex and voluntary nystagmus. Discussion of similar-looking conditions (e.g. six nerve palsy, limitation of abduction, lateral rectus muscle problems) and how to tell them apart from spasm of the near reflex by observing the myosis evoked by the near respo...Image/MovingImage
194 Spasmus NutansExample of patient with spasmus nutans. Discussion of characteristics of this disorder, such as dissociated or monocular nystagmus, abnormal head position, and to-and-fro head oscillation. Sometimes an eccentric gaze is seen as well (as in patient). Patient has a monocular horizontal nystagmus in th...Image/MovingImage
195 Spasmus NutansImage/MovingImage
196 Spiral and Stellate Visual Fields Non-physiologic VariantsDescription of testing the spiral and stellate visual fields.
197 Spontaneous Venous PulsationsThis clips shows a spontaneous venous pulsation viewed during an ocular examination.Image/MovingImage
198 Square Wave JerksExample of patient with square wave jerks. Discussion of difference between square wave jerks (saccadic oscillations) and horizontal nystagmus.Image/MovingImage
199 Stage 2 - PapilledemaImage
200 Stages of PapilledemaText
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