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TitleCreatorDescription
176 Anterior Ischemic Optic Neuropathy (Portuguese)NANOSLoss of blood supply to the optic nerve results in diminished visual acuity.
177 Anisocoria (Portuguese)NANOSPupil in the right eye and left eye are not the same size.
178 Blepharoespasm (Portuguese)NANOSUncontrolled blinking, squeezing, and eyelid closure that occurs in both eyes without an apparent environmental cause.
179 Dry Eye Syndrome (Portuguese)NANOSPeople with abnormalities of the tear film are diagnosed with "dry eyes", but some patients with "dry eyes" may not feel that their eyes are "dry". Itching, burning, a scratchy sensation, a sensation that there is sand or grit in the eye, or intermittent blurring of the vision can all be symptoms of...
180 Homonymous Hemianopia (Portuguese)NANOSThis refers to an absence of vision towards one side of the visual world in each eye. The damage that caused this problem is in the brain and not in the eyes.
181 Idiopatic Intracranial Hypertension (Portuguese)NANOSRaised intracranial pressure.
182 Microvascular Nerve Palsy (Portuguese)NANOSMicrovascular cranial nerve palsy is one of the most common causes of double vision in the older poulation. They are often referred to as "diabetic" palsies. They will resolve without leaving any double vision.
183 Migraine Enxaqueca (Portuguese)NANOSHeadache on one or both sides of the brain, and may include symptoms of nausea, vomiting, and sensitivity to light.
184 Meniere Disease (Portuguese)NANOSAbout Meniere disease.
185 Hemifacial Spasm (Portuguese)NANOSInvoluntary contractions, called "spasms," of the muscles on one side of the face. The affected side of the face seems to "scrunch up" while the other side of the face remains normal.
186 Eyelid Myokymia (Portuguese)NANOSExcessive or anomalous eyelid closure.
187 Control of the Eye Movements: Neuroanatomy Video Lab - Brain DissectionsSuzanne S. Stensaas, PhD, Professor Emeritus, Department of Neurobiology and Anatomy School of Medicine, University of UtahDisturbances in eye movements can provide important clues for localization of neurological damage. The role of the frontal eye fields in horizontal gaze is stressed. The need to coordinate cranial nerves on both sides of the brain stem introduces the medial longitudinal fasciculus and its role in co...
188 Optic Disc Drusen (Portuguese)NANOSOptic disc drusen are abnormal deposits of protein-like material in the optic disc - the front part of the optic nerve.
189 The Spinal Cord & Monosynaptic Reflex: Neuroanatomy Video Lab - Brain DissectionsSuzanne S. Stensaas, PhD, Professor Emeritus, Department of Neurobiology and Anatomy School of Medicine, University of UtahThe spinal cord's relationship to the foramina, discs and spinal nerves is demonstrated on a model. The dura, ganglia and rootlets are shown as well as the gray and white matter in gross sections at different levels. A model of the cord is used to demonstrate and describe the anatomy of a monosynapt...
190 The Unfixed Spinal Cord: Neuroanatomy Video Lab - Brain DissectionsSuzanne S. Stensaas, PhD, Professor Emeritus, Department of Neurobiology and Anatomy School of Medicine, University of UtahThe spinal cord's relationship to the foramina, discs and spinal nerves is demonstrated on a model. The dura, ganglia and rootlets are shown as well as the gray and white matter in gross sections at different levels. A model of the cord is used to demonstrate and describe the anatomy of a monosynapt...
191 Three Critical Vertical Pathways: Neuroanatomy Video Lab - Brain DissectionsSuzanne S. Stensaas, PhD, Professor Emeritus, Department of Neurobiology and Anatomy School of Medicine, University of UtahThere is one motor and two sensory pathways that must be mastered. Pain and temperature from the body travel together and vibration and proprioception travel in another pathway each reaching perception in the cortex. Voluntary motor control starts in the cerebral cortex and connects with a motor neu...
192 The Most Important Pathway: Motor Control: Neuroanatomy Video Lab - Brain DissectionsSuzanne S. Stensaas, PhD, Professor Emeritus, Department of Neurobiology and Anatomy School of Medicine, University of UtahThe origin of the corticospinal tract in the cerebral cortex is traced through gross sections of the hemisphere and brain stem to the spinal cord. Using an animation, the terms upper and lower motor neuron are defined and clinical signs and symptom listed.
193 Hypothalamus: Neuroanatomy Video Lab - Brain DissectionsSuzanne S. Stensaas, PhD, Professor Emeritus, Department of Neurobiology and Anatomy School of Medicine, University of UtahGross specimens are used to demonstrate the area of the hypothalamus and its relationship to surrounding structures. Both endocrine and autonomic functions are explored using diagrams. Mention is made of the direct hypothalamic response to circulating hormones and other substances such as sodium. Th...
194 Olfactory System: Neuroanatomy Video Lab - Brain DissectionsSuzanne S. Stensaas, PhD, Professor Emeritus, Department of Neurobiology and Anatomy School of Medicine, University of UtahBeginning with the location of the sensory cells within the skull the axons are traced into the cranial cavity. Demonstration of the olfactory bulb, olfactory tract and it termination in the forebrain and temporal lobe are indicated. Trauma and meningiomas can produce loss of small (anosmia). Degene...
195 Limbic System: Neuroanatomy Video Lab - Brain DissectionsSuzanne S. Stensaas, PhD, Professor Emeritus, Department of Neurobiology and Anatomy School of Medicine, University of UtahThe decision was made to present a simplified description of a much more complex system using animations to construct a 3D image. Papez circuit is shown on gross specimens with mention of its involvement in memory. The role of the amygdala in fear and the olfactory cortex in temporal lobe epilepsy a...
196 The Visual Pathway: Neuroanatomy Video Lab - Brain DissectionsSuzanne S. Stensaas, PhD, Professor Emeritus, Department of Neurobiology and Anatomy School of Medicine, University of UtahA brief review of the anatomy of the eye and the photic stimulation of the receptors is followed by a gross exploration of the visual pathway from the optic nerve, chiasm, and tract to the thalamus stressing how the left part of the visual world reaches the right hemisphere. Visual fields are relate...
197 The Normal Unfixed Brain: Neuroanatomy Video Lab - Brain DissectionsSuzanne S. Stensaas, PhD, Professor Emeritus, Department of Neurobiology and Anatomy School of Medicine, University of UtahThe consistency and vulnerability of the brain is demonstrated along with the clear and glistening pia and arachnoid and the tough dura. The cushioning function of the CSF is stressed and the features are pointed out on the ventral surface. The uncus and temporal lobes are normal with arteries free ...
198 Orientation: The Planes of the Brain: Neuroanatomy Video Lab - Brain DissectionsSuzanne S. Stensaas, PhD, Professor Emeritus, Department of Neurobiology and Anatomy School of Medicine, University of UtahTerms such as anterior, posterior, inferior and superior are introduced with respect to the hemispheres as well as the brain stem. Terms such as rostral and caudal or dorsal and ventral can mean different things in different areas. Sections in three planes (frontal, axial, and sagittal) are demonstr...
199 The Meninges: Neuroanatomy Video Lab - Brain DissectionsSuzanne S. Stensaas, PhD, Professor Emeritus, Department of Neurobiology and Anatomy School of Medicine, University of UtahThe epidural, subdural and subarachnoid spaces are demonstrated and discussed with respect to trauma and disease. The relationship of the brainstem and cerebellum to the tentorium demonstrates the vulnerability of the brain stem to increased supratentorial pressure and herniation. Arachnoid granulat...
200 Cranial Nerves: Neuroanatomy Video Lab - Brain DissectionsSuzanne S. Stensaas, PhD, Professor Emeritus, Department of Neurobiology and Anatomy School of Medicine, University of UtahThe approach is to learn to associate the cranial nerves with their brainstem level and blood supply. Emphasis is given to the midbrain (3, 4), pons (5, 6, 7, 8), medulla (9, 10, 11, 12) and their most important functions.
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