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176 Excellent palliative care as the standard, physician-assisted dying as a last resortTo understand the role of physician-assisted death as a last-resort option restricted to dying patients for whom palliative care or hospice has become ineffective or unacceptable, one must understand how frequently and under what circumstances that occurs. If all such cases are the result of inadequ...2004
177 False dichotomy versus genuine choice the argument over physician-assisted dyingDespite a growing consensus that palliative care should be a core part of the treatment offered to all severely ill patients who potentially face death,1 challenging questions remain. How broad a choice should patients have in guiding the course of their own dying? What limitations should be placed ...2004
178 Rocking the foundations of cartesian knowledge: critical notice of Janet Broughton, descartes's method of doubtJanet Broughton's Descartes's Method of Doubt†1 is a systematic study of the role of doubt in Descartes's epistemology. The book has two parts. Part 1 focuses on the development of doubt in the First Meditation, exploring such topics as the motivation behind methodic doubt; the targeted audience...Super-indubitables; Canonical circularity; Clear and distinct truths'2004-01
179 Heredity and heritabilityPhilosophical discussions of heredity have focused on the sustainability of heritability analyses and more recently on the units of heredity. Here I introduce the concept of heritability and the problems associated with it. Next the units of heredity discussion is introduced. Here I consider alterna...DNA; Heredity; Heritability2004-07-15
180 From paradox to judgment: an essay on the metaphysics of expressionThe Liar sentence is a singularly important piece of philosophical evidence. It is an instrument for investigating the metaphysics of expressing truths and falsehoods. And an instrument too for investigating the varieties of conflict that can give rise to paradox. It shall serve as perhaps the most ...Liar sentence; Metaphysics; Paradox; Human Nature; Truth; Falsehood2005
181 From paradox to judgment: towards a metaphysics of expressionThe Liar sentence is a singularly important piece of philosophical evidence. It is an instrument for investigating the metaphysics of expressing truths and falsehoods. And an instrument too for investigating the varieties of conflict that can give rise to paradox. It shall serve as perhaps the most ...Language; Sentences; Semantic2005
182 Competitive sports, disability, and problems of justice in sportsA "level playing field" is a stock metaphor for equality. Despite its status as a near-cliché, however, the metaphor has been given limited theoretical attention. Deliberately tilting the field so that one set of contestants must consistently run uphill while their opponents get a downhill ride is...Level playing field; Competitive sports2005
183 On natural goodness by Philippa FootIn her 1972 paper 'Morality as a System of Hypothetical Imperatives', Philippa Foot boldly challenged the common assumption that viciousness is a form of irrationality and embraced a picture of practical rationality according to which an agent's reasons for action are grounded in nothing other th...Irrationality; Evaluation; Natural defect2005
184 Heidegger and the prospect of a phenomenology of prayerAn attempt to contribute to a "phenomenology of prayer" ought to begin with the recognition that the word "phenomenology" means many different things to many different people. Moreover, it must be recognized that none of these usages has any obvious claim to being the normative one. Given these ines...2005
185 July 4, 1826: explaining the same-day deaths of John Adams and Thomas JeffersonJohn Adams and Thomas Jefferson died on the same day, July 4, 1826. Both were old men--Adams was 90, and Jefferson was 83--and both were ill, though Adams had been in comparatively robust health until just a few months earlier and Jefferson had been ill for an extended period. They had been rivals,...Coincidence; Synchrony; Bioethics; Euthanasia; Suicide2005
186 Descartes' epistemologyRené Descartes (1596-1650) is widely regarded as the father of modern Philosophy;. His noteworthy contributions extend to mathematics and physics. This entry focuses on his philosophical contributions in the theory of knowledge. Specifically, the focus is on the epistemological project of Descartes...Descartes; Philosophy;; Epistemology2005-04-14
187 Practical reason and the structure of actionsA wave of recent philosophical work on practical rationality is organized by the following implicit argument: Practical reasoning is figuring out what to do; to do is to act; so the forms of practical inference can be derived from the structure or features of action. Now it is not as though earlier ...Practical reasoning; Inference; Philosophy2005-08-24
188 Justice through trust: disability and the Outlier problem in Social Contract TheoryThe article focuses on the flaws of the social contract theory. It explores how hostile the social contract as a bargaining process has been thought to distance disabled people from contract-based justice. It analyzes the argument that the history of social contract theory exclude the people with di...Consensus, social sciences; Discrimination; Social contract; Social ethics; Sociology of disability2005-10
189 On probability and systematics: possibility, probability, and phylogenetic inferenceIn phylogenetic systematics, an ongoing debate has revolved around the appropriate choice of methodology for the construction of phylogenetic trees and inference of ancestral states. A recent paper by Mark Siddall and Arnold Kluge (Siddall and Kluge, 1997) advocates a privileged status for parsimon...Phylogentic systematics; Probability; Possibility; Frequency; Propensity2005-10-01
190 Coherence, consistency, and cohesion: Clade selection in Okasha and beyondSamir Okasha argues that clade selection is an incoherent concept, because the relation that constitutes clades is such that it renders parent-offspring (reproduction) relations between clades impossible. He reasons that since clades cannot reproduce, it is not coherent to speak of natural selection...Biological classification; Cladistics; Taxonomy2005-12
191 Explanation in classical population geneticsThe recent literature in Philosophy; of biology has drawn attention to the different sorts of explanations proffered in the biological sciences--we have molecular, biomedical, and evolutionary explanations. Do these explanations all have a common structure or relation that they seek to capture? This...Biology, Philosophy;; Explanation; Genetics; Life sciences; Population genetics; Science2005-12
192 Poverty of the Linnaean Hierarchy: a philosophical study of biological taxonomy (book review)The article reviews the book "The Poverty of the Linnaean Hierarchy: A Philosophical Study of Biological Taxonomy," by Marc Ereshefsky.Biology, classification; Books, reviews; Nonficiton2005-12-15
193 'Race': normative, not metaphysical or semanticIn recent years, there has been a flurry of work on the metaphysics of race. While it is now widely accepted that races do not share robust, biobehavioral essences, opinions differ over what, if anything, race is. Recent work has been divided between three apparently quite different answers. A varie...2006
194 Getting on in a varied worldAre greed and ruthlessness contrary to reason? Is immorality a form of irrationality? Much of contemporary ethical theory is a debate between Kantians, who argue that the dictates of morality are dictates of reason, and Humeans, who argue that reason is neutral between morality and immorality. T...Kantians; Humeans; Immorality2006
195 Innateness as closed process invarianceAlthough we are enthusiastic about a Darwinian approach to culture, we argue that the overview presented in the target article does not sufficiently emphasize the crucial explanatory role that psychology plays in the study of culture. We use a number of examples to illustrate the variety of ways by...2006
196 Role of psychology in the study of cultureAlthough we are enthusiastic about a Darwinian approach to culture, we argue that the overview presented in the target article does not sufficiently emphasize the crucial explanatory role that psychology plays in the study of culture. We use a number of examples to illustrate the variety of ways by...2006
197 Strategies of model building in population geneticsIn 1966, Richard Levins argued that there are different strategies in model building in population biology. In this paper, I reply to Orzack and Sober's (1993) critiques of Levins and argue that his view on modeling strategies apply also in the context of evolutionary genetics. In particular, I arg...2006
198 Economic impact of the Mexico-Utah relationshipThis study began during the Summer of 2005 and set out to examine the complexity of the globalized relation between Utah and Mexico, concentrating on broadly defined "economic linkages." It was designed to build upon earlier similar studies done in Arizona and in Texas on those states' relations wit...Economics, Utah; Migration; Immigration; Mexico; Undocumented immigrants2006-03-10
199 Democracy beyond borders: justice and representation in global institutionsA book review of Andrew Kuper's Democracy Beyond Borders: Justice and Representation in Global Institutions.Book review; Democracy; Global governance2006-04
200 Penn Central Transportation Company v. New York City: easy taking-clause cases make uncertain Law.In Penn Central Transportation Company v. New York City, the Supreme Court held that New York City's Landmarks Preservation Law as applied to Grand Central Terminal was not a "taking" of property for which compensation is constitutionally required. The decision has been hailed as a major victory for...Law; Compensation; Property Rights; Landmarks Preservation Law; Supreme Court Rulings2006-06-16
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