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176 Coley, Phyllis D.; Kursar, Thomas A.Effects of weather on fungal abundance and richness among 25 communities in the Intermountain WestBecause moisture and temperature influence the growth of fungi, characterizing weather conditions favorable for fungi may be used to predict the abundance and richness of fungi in habitats with different climate conditions. To estimate habitat favorability to fungi, we examined the relationship of f...Intermountain West; Utah; Microclimate; Fungal prevalence2002
177 Thomas, Kirk R.; Capecchi, Mario R.Efficient correction of mismatched bases in plasmid heteroduplexes injected into cultured mammalian cell nuclei.Heteroduplexes were prepared from two plasmids, pRH4-14/TK and pRH5-8/TK, containing different amber mutations in the neomycin resistance gene (Neor). The Neor gene was engineered to be expressed in both bacterial and mammalian cells. A functional Neor gene conferred kanamycin resistance to bacteria...Cell Nucleus; Cells, Cultured; Microinjections1985-01
178 Gesteland, Raymond F.; Weiss, Robert B.Efficient shine- Dalgarno sequence but not translation is necessary for LacZ mRNA stability in Escherichia coliThe 5' ends of many bacterial transcripts are important in determining mRNA stability. A series of Shine-Dalgarno (SD) sequence changes showed that the complementarity of the SD sequence to the anti-SD sequence of 16S rRNA correlates with lacZ mRNA stability in Escherichia coli. Several initiation c...Protein Biosynthesis; Ribosomes; Escherichia coli; Shine-Dalgarno Sequence1994
179 Bohs, Lynn A.Eggplant origins: out of Africa, into the OrientThe eggplant (Solanum melongena L.), also known as aubergine or brinjal, has been cultivated for centuries in the Old World and is currently a crop species of global importance. Despite this, hypotheses of eggplant evolution have been fraught with controversy. Previous conclusions have relied solely...Eggplant origins; Crop domestication; Solanum melongena complex; Solanum incanum; DNA sequence; Africa; Asia2010
180 Carrier, David R.Electromyographic pattern of the gular pump in monitor lizardsGular pumping in monitor lizards is known to play an important role in lung ventilation, but its evolutionary origin has not yet been addressed. To determine whether the gular pump derives from the buccal pump of basal tetrapods or is a novel invention, we investigated the electromyographic activity...Electromyographic pattern; Gular pump; Varanus exanthematicus; Lung ventilation; Evolution2001
181 Blair, David F.Electron spin relaxation of CuA and cytochrome a in cytochrome c oxidase: comparison to heme, copper, and sulfur radical complexesThe method of continuous saturation has been used to measure the electron spin relaxation parameter T1T2 at temperatures between 10 and 50 K for a variety of S = % species including: CuA and cytochrome a of cytochrome c oxidase, the type1 copper in several blue copper proteins, the type 2 coppe...Electron spin relaxation; EPR signals; Sulfur radical complexes1984
182 Capecchi, Mario R.ELOVL3 is an important component for early onset of lipid recruitment in brown adipose tissueDuring the recruitment process of brown adipose tissue, the mRNA level of the fatty acyl chain elongase Elovl3 is elevated more than 200-fold in cold-stressed mice. We have obtained Elovl3-ablated mice and report here that, although cold-acclimated Elovl3-ablated mice experienced an increased heat l...2005-12-21
183 Sperry, John S.Embolized conduits of rice (Oryza sativa, poaceae) refill despite negative xylem pressureEmbolism reversal in rice plants was studied by testing the plant's ability to refill embolized conduits while xylem pressures were substantially negative. Intact, potted plants were water-stressed to a xylem pressure of -1.88 + 0.1 MPa and a 66.3 + 3.8% loss of xylem conductivity (PLC) by cavitatio...Embolism; novel revilling; Oryza2005
184 Potts, Wayne K.Emigration behavior of Clark's NutcrackerEruptive movements of the Clark's Nutcracker (Nucifraga columbiana) were observed during the late summer and fall of 1977, 1978 and 1979 in northern Utah and adjacent states. Over 2,000 emigrating nutcrackers were seen during these periods. Eruptions began in mid to late August, about the time nutcr...Breeding range; Flocks; Observations1981
185 Ehleringer, James R.ENSO effects on primary productivity in Southern Atacama desertIn the winter-rain southern Atacama Desert of the Coquimbo Region of Chile, El Niño - Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events modulate primary productivity. In this region, there are important changes in water availability between La Niña (dry) and El Niño (rainy) years. Using interannual comparison...El Niño; Atacama Desert; Terrestrial ecosystems; Plant productivity2006
186 Capecchi, Mario R.Establishment of mammalian cell lines containing multiple nonsense mutations and functional suppressor tRNA genes.We describe the generation of mammalian cell lines carrying amber suppressor genes. Nonsense mutants in the herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase (HSV tk) gene, the Escherichia coli xanthine-guanine phosphoribosyl transferase (Eco-gpt) gene and the aminoglycoside 3' phosphotransferase gene of the Tn...Cercopithecus aethiops; Escherichia coli; Xenopus1982-11-30
187 Bohs, Lynn A.Ethnobotany of the genus Cyphomandra (Solanaceae)Plants of the genus Cyphomandra (Solanaceae) have long been utilized for their edible fruits in their native Latin America. The best-known species is the domesticated tree tomato or tamarillo, Cyphomandra betacea. This species, popular as a raw or cooked fruit, is widely cultivated in Andean South ...Cyphomandra; Cyphomandra betacea; Alkaloids1989
188 Ehleringer, James R.Evaluación de la capacidad estacional de utilizar eventos de preciptación en tres especies de arbustos nativos de Chile con distintos sistemas radicularesSe evaluó la capacidad estacional de utilizar un evento de precipitación en tres especies arbustivas con diferentes sistemas radiculares (dimórficos: Balbisia peduncularis, Senna cumingii; profundo: Haplopappus parvifolius) en la Quebrada El Romeral, norte-centro de Chile. El sitio posee un clima...Fuentes de agua; Proporción de isótopos estables; Sistema radicular; Desertificación; Zonas áridas; Chile; Water sources; Stable isotopes ratio; Root system; Arid zone; Balbisia peduncularis; Senna cummingii; Haplopappus parvifolius2002
189 Sperry, John S.Evaluation of Murray's law in Psilotum nudum (Psilotaceae), an analogue of ancestral vascular plantsPrevious work has shown that the xylem of seed plants follows Murray's law when conduits do not provide structural support to the plant. Here, compliance with Murray's law was tested in the stem photosynthesizer Psilotum nudum, a seedless vascular plant. Psilotum nudum was chosen because the central...Conduit furcation number; hydraulic architecture; Murray's law2005
190 Seger, JonEvidence for a cryptic species complex in the ant parasitoid Apocephalus paraponerae (Diptera: Phoridae)Cryptic species complexes occur in many taxa, in particular in the insect order Diptera. Here we describe a possible new cryptic species complex in the family Phoridae. Three lines of evidence suggest that Apocephalus paraponerae, an ant parasitoid, is actually a complex of at least four genetically...Host; Sequence; Populations2001
191 Carrier, David R.Evidence for endothermic ancestors of crocodiles at the stem of archosaur evolutionPhysiological, anatomical, and developmental features of the crocodilian heart support the paleontological evidence that the ancestors of living crocodilians were active and endothermic, but the lineage reverted to ectothermy when it invaded the aquatic, ambush predator niche. In endotherms, there i...Endothermy; ectothermy; Archosaur evolution; Archosaurs; Crocodilian heart2004
192 Beckerle, Mary C.Evidence for the selective association of a subpopulation of GPIIb-IIIa with the actin cytoskeletons of thrombin-activated plateletsActivation of blood platelets triggers a series of responses leading to the formation and retraction of blood clots. Among these responses is the establishment of integrin-mediated transmembrane connections between extracellular matrix components and the actin cytoskeleton of the platelet.Actin; GPIIb-IIIa1993
193 Adler, Frederick R.Evolution of forager responses to inducible defensesMost theoretical and empirical investigations of inducible defenses have focused on identifying conditions that favor the evolution of inducibility by the prey species. These analyses outline the essential consequences of frequency-dependent benefits of deploying the defense, degrees of predictabili...Predation; Cues; Phenotypes1999
194 Seger, JonEvolution of individuality by Leo W. BussMetazoans seldom reproduce vegetatively; they often die of cancer; and they almost always sequester their germ lines. Plants often reproduce vegetatively, seldom die of cancer, and almost never sequester a germ line. Buss argues that these and many other patterns can all be understood in a unified w...Cell lines; Hierarchy; Biology1988
195 Potts, Wayne K.Evolution of mating preferences and major histocompatibility complex genesHouse mice prefer mates genetically dissimilar at the major histocompatibility complex (MHC). The highly polymorphic MHC genes control immunological self/nonself recognition; therefore, this mating preference may function to provide "good genes" for an individual's offspring. However, the evidence ...Inbreeding; Parasites; Recognition1999
196 Sperry, John S.Evolution of water transport and xylem structureLand plants need water to replace the evaporation that occurs while atmospheric CO2 is diffusing into photosynthetic tissue. The water-for-carbon exchange rate is poor, and evolutionary history indicates a progression of innovations for cheap water transport--beginning in order with capillary sucti...Cavitation; Vessels; Plants2003
197 Davidson, Diane W.Evolutionary ecology of symbiotic ant-plant relationshipsAbstract.--A tabular survey of ant-plant symbioses worldwide summarizes aspects of the evolutionary ecology of these associations. Remarkable similarities between ant-plant symbioses in disjunct tropical regions result from convergent and parallel evolution of similarly preadapted ants and plants. ...Symbioses; Evolution; Taxonomic1993
198 Davidson, Diane W.Experimental manipulation of food bodies in CecropiaNeotropical Cecropia trees range from Mexico to Argentina and are typical of disturbed habitats. Cecropia plants provide food and housing for the ants in return for known or presumed protection from herbivores and vine cover. Glycogen-rich Mullerian bodies (MB's) are the predominant food source for ...Mullerian bodies; Trichilia; Cecropia tessmannii; Cecropia pungara1992
199 Davidson, Diane W.Experimental studies of species-specificity in cecropia-ant relationshipsStrict coevolution requires that interactions among organisms be speciesspecific. We assessed the relative roles of host- and habitat-specificity in determining the match between a genus of myrmecophytic trees and a guild of obligate plant-ants in the moist tropical forests of Madre de Dios, Peru. F...Ant-plant; Ants; Cecropia; Coevolution; Colonization; Coordinated dispersal; Ecological fitting; Habitat-specificity; Host-specificity; Mutualism; Parasitoid wasps; Preadaptation1997
200 Ehleringer, James R.; Cerling, Thure E.; Dearing, Maria-DeniseExperimental study of carbon-isotope fractionation between diet, hair, and feces of mammalian herbivoresThe carbon-isotope composition of hair and feces offers a glimpse into the diets of mammalian herbivores. It is particularly useful for determining the relative consumption of browse and graze in tropical environments, as these foods have strongly divergent carbon-isotope compositions. Fecal ?13C v...Fractionation; Mammalian herbivores; Medicago sativa; Cynodon dactylon2003
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