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CreatorTitleDescriptionSubjectDate
151 Millgram, ElijahOntological meta-argument (and the ontological argument for the actuality of the world)Would the Ontological Argument Greater Than Which None Can Be Conceived prove the existence of God? Might an ontological argument prove the actuality of the world (as Robert Nozick once suggested)? Should you believe that you're actual, even if you're not? And what happens if we attempt to answer t...Meta-argument; Proof of God; Philosophical proofs2004
152 Battin, Margaret P.Excellent palliative care as the standard, physician-assisted dying as a last resortTo understand the role of physician-assisted death as a last-resort option restricted to dying patients for whom palliative care or hospice has become ineffective or unacceptable, one must understand how frequently and under what circumstances that occurs. If all such cases are the result of inadequ...2004
153 Francis, LeslieLegitimate expectations, unreasonable beliefs, and legally mandated coverage of experimental therapyPhotographs of patients seeking contributions for expensive bone marrow transplants are an everyday image on supermarket checkout stands. Benefit concerts, newspaper stories, and community fundraisers pitch in to help patients who cannot otherwise afford expensive medical interventions. Patients wit...Experimental therapy; Mandated coverage; Off-label drug uses2004
154 Battin, Margaret P.Coping with methuselah the impact of molecular biology on medicine and societyThe prospect of extra-long life spawns a bloom of ethical issues, among them how to achieve intergenerational equity; how to balance health care entitlements with rising costs for the elderly; how to divide years of life between work and retirement; how to assign the responsibilities of young family...2004
155 Andreou, ChrisoulaInstrumentally rational myopic planningI challenge the view that, in cases where time for deliberation is not an issue, instrumental rationality precludes myopic planning. 1 show where there is room for instrumentally rational myopic planning, and then argue that such planning is possible not only in theory, it is something human beings ...Rationality; Practical reason; Motivations2004
156 Francis, LeslieEmployment and intellectual disabilityUnder recent decisions of the United States Supreme Court, people with disabilities alleging employment discrimination under the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) are caught in a vicious triangle. One vertex of the triangle is self-accommodation. Correcting for their impairments through effort,...Americans with Disabilities Act; ADA; Intellectual disability2004
157 Newman, LexRocking the foundations of cartesian knowledge: critical notice of Janet Broughton, descartes's method of doubtJanet Broughton's Descartes's Method of Doubt†1 is a systematic study of the role of doubt in Descartes's epistemology. The book has two parts. Part 1 focuses on the development of doubt in the First Meditation, exploring such topics as the motivation behind methodic doubt; the targeted audience...Super-indubitables; Canonical circularity; Clear and distinct truths'2004-01
158 Downes, Stephen M.Heredity and heritabilityPhilosophical discussions of heredity have focused on the sustainability of heritability analyses and more recently on the units of heredity. Here I introduce the concept of heritability and the problems associated with it. Next the units of heredity discussion is introduced. Here I consider alterna...DNA; Heredity; Heritability2004-07-15
159 Francis, LeslieCompetitive sports, disability, and problems of justice in sportsA "level playing field" is a stock metaphor for equality. Despite its status as a near-cliché, however, the metaphor has been given limited theoretical attention. Deliberately tilting the field so that one set of contestants must consistently run uphill while their opponents get a downhill ride is...Level playing field; Competitive sports2005
160 Crowe, Benjamin D.Heidegger and the prospect of a phenomenology of prayerAn attempt to contribute to a "phenomenology of prayer" ought to begin with the recognition that the word "phenomenology" means many different things to many different people. Moreover, it must be recognized that none of these usages has any obvious claim to being the normative one. Given these ines...2005
161 Thalos, Mariam G.From paradox to judgment: towards a metaphysics of expressionThe Liar sentence is a singularly important piece of philosophical evidence. It is an instrument for investigating the metaphysics of expressing truths and falsehoods. And an instrument too for investigating the varieties of conflict that can give rise to paradox. It shall serve as perhaps the most ...Language; Sentences; Semantic2005
162 Andreou, ChrisoulaOn natural goodness by Philippa FootIn her 1972 paper 'Morality as a System of Hypothetical Imperatives', Philippa Foot boldly challenged the common assumption that viciousness is a form of irrationality and embraced a picture of practical rationality according to which an agent's reasons for action are grounded in nothing other th...Irrationality; Evaluation; Natural defect2005
163 Battin, Margaret P.July 4, 1826: explaining the same-day deaths of John Adams and Thomas JeffersonJohn Adams and Thomas Jefferson died on the same day, July 4, 1826. Both were old men--Adams was 90, and Jefferson was 83--and both were ill, though Adams had been in comparatively robust health until just a few months earlier and Jefferson had been ill for an extended period. They had been rivals,...Coincidence; Synchrony; Bioethics; Euthanasia; Suicide2005
164 Thalos, Mariam G.From paradox to judgment: an essay on the metaphysics of expressionThe Liar sentence is a singularly important piece of philosophical evidence. It is an instrument for investigating the metaphysics of expressing truths and falsehoods. And an instrument too for investigating the varieties of conflict that can give rise to paradox. It shall serve as perhaps the most ...Liar sentence; Metaphysics; Paradox; Human Nature; Truth; Falsehood2005
165 Newman, LexDescartes' epistemologyRené Descartes (1596-1650) is widely regarded as the father of modern Philosophy;. His noteworthy contributions extend to mathematics and physics. This entry focuses on his philosophical contributions in the theory of knowledge. Specifically, the focus is on the epistemological project of Descartes...Descartes; Philosophy;; Epistemology2005-04-14
166 Millgram, ElijahPractical reason and the structure of actionsA wave of recent philosophical work on practical rationality is organized by the following implicit argument: Practical reasoning is figuring out what to do; to do is to act; so the forms of practical inference can be derived from the structure or features of action. Now it is not as though earlier ...Practical reasoning; Inference; Philosophy2005-08-24
167 Francis, LeslieJustice through trust: disability and the Outlier problem in Social Contract TheoryThe article focuses on the flaws of the social contract theory. It explores how hostile the social contract as a bargaining process has been thought to distance disabled people from contract-based justice. It analyzes the argument that the history of social contract theory exclude the people with di...Consensus, social sciences; Discrimination; Social contract; Social ethics; Sociology of disability2005-10
168 Haber, MatthewOn probability and systematics: possibility, probability, and phylogenetic inferenceIn phylogenetic systematics, an ongoing debate has revolved around the appropriate choice of methodology for the construction of phylogenetic trees and inference of ancestral states. A recent paper by Mark Siddall and Arnold Kluge (Siddall and Kluge, 1997) advocates a privileged status for parsimon...Phylogentic systematics; Probability; Possibility; Frequency; Propensity2005-10-01
169 Plutynski, AnyaExplanation in classical population geneticsThe recent literature in Philosophy; of biology has drawn attention to the different sorts of explanations proffered in the biological sciences--we have molecular, biomedical, and evolutionary explanations. Do these explanations all have a common structure or relation that they seek to capture? This...Biology, Philosophy;; Explanation; Genetics; Life sciences; Population genetics; Science2005-12
170 Haber, MatthewCoherence, consistency, and cohesion: Clade selection in Okasha and beyondSamir Okasha argues that clade selection is an incoherent concept, because the relation that constitutes clades is such that it renders parent-offspring (reproduction) relations between clades impossible. He reasons that since clades cannot reproduce, it is not coherent to speak of natural selection...Biological classification; Cladistics; Taxonomy2005-12
171 Haber, MatthewPoverty of the Linnaean Hierarchy: a philosophical study of biological taxonomy (book review)The article reviews the book "The Poverty of the Linnaean Hierarchy: A Philosophical Study of Biological Taxonomy," by Marc Ereshefsky.Biology, classification; Books, reviews; Nonficiton2005-12-15
172 Mallon, Ronald'Race': normative, not metaphysical or semanticIn recent years, there has been a flurry of work on the metaphysics of race. While it is now widely accepted that races do not share robust, biobehavioral essences, opinions differ over what, if anything, race is. Recent work has been divided between three apparently quite different answers. A varie...2006
173 Mallon, RonaldInnateness as closed process invarianceAlthough we are enthusiastic about a Darwinian approach to culture, we argue that the overview presented in the target article does not sufficiently emphasize the crucial explanatory role that psychology plays in the study of culture. We use a number of examples to illustrate the variety of ways by...2006
174 Mallon, RonaldRole of psychology in the study of cultureAlthough we are enthusiastic about a Darwinian approach to culture, we argue that the overview presented in the target article does not sufficiently emphasize the crucial explanatory role that psychology plays in the study of culture. We use a number of examples to illustrate the variety of ways by...2006
175 Plutynski, AnyaStrategies of model building in population geneticsIn 1966, Richard Levins argued that there are different strategies in model building in population biology. In this paper, I reply to Orzack and Sober's (1993) critiques of Levins and argue that his view on modeling strategies apply also in the context of evolutionary genetics. In particular, I arg...2006
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