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TitleDescriptionType
126 How to Measure the RAPDThis clip demonstrates the examination technique for measuring the Relative Afferent Pupillary Defect (RAPD). Demonstration of balancing an afferent papillary defect using filters in a patient with a resolving optic neuritis and an afferent papillary defect on the left.Image/MovingImage
127 Normal Eye MovementsThis is an examination of a person with normal eye movements. Notice the patient has normal excursions. He has normal pursuit and saccades (horizontally and vertically).Text
128 ExophthalmometryDemonstration of exophthalmometry examination.Text
129 Measuring Visual AcuityDemonstration on self of visual acuity exam, using a standard card.Image/MovingImage
130 See-saw Nystagmus MRI 1MRI; See-saw NystagmusImage
131 See-saw Nystagmus MRI 2MRI; See-saw NystagmusImage
132 See-Saw Nystagmus7-year-old female whose mother noticed her eyes "bouncing" for 2 months. Visual acuity 20/70 OD and 20/40 OS, reduced color vision OU, and no afferent pupillary defect. See-saw nystagmus documented with videography. Manual perimetry revealed a complete right homonymous hemianopia. MRI revealed a lar...Image/MovingImage
133 Anterior ischemic optic neuropathyPPT describing Anterior Ischemic Optic Neuropathy (AION). Covers clinical signs, such as monocular vision loss, swollen nerve, and visual field defects, as well as risk factors.Text
134 Herpes Zoster Ophthalmicus with Third Nerve PalsyImages showing presenttion of Herpes ZosterText; Image
135 3-65 - Shunt Vessels (Glaucoma)Chronic end-stage glaucoma produces high pressure that interferes with venous drainage from the disc and broad smooth venous collaterals drain the disc centrifugally to the disc margin where they drain.Image
136 3-64a - Shunt Vessels (CRVO)This man with a chronic CRVO and retino-choroidal collaterals developed AION and his collaterals disappeared. CRVO with retinochoroidal collaterals is almost always associated with multiple peripheral dot and blot hemorrhages as well as nerve fiber layer infarcts of various ages. Notice the retino-c...Image
137 3-4 - Tilted DiscTilted discs are normal variants caused by oblique insertion of the optic nerve to the globe. They can be and frequently are mistaken for papilledema. In this case the superior edge of the disc is tilted and appears elevated. This disc exhibits a nasal inferior tilt.Image
138 3-66a - Shunt Vessels (post-papilledema)The retino-choroidal collaterals seen with chronic papilledema begin with a "Hairnet" of telangiectasias that gradually winnow down to one or more large collateral tortuous draining channel. The presence of these vessels is evidence of long standing disc swelling. When the CSF pressure is lowered, t...Image
139 3-66d - Shunt Vessels (post-papilledema)The retino-choroidal collaterals seen with chronic papilledema begin with a "Hairnet" of telangiectasias that gradually winnow down to one or more large collateral tortuous draining channel. The presence of these vessels is evidence of long standing disc swelling. When the CSF pressure is lowered, t...Image
140 2-4a - Disc AnatomyThe optic disc appearance is determined by: the size of the eye, the size of the scleral canal, how the nerve is inserted into the globe, the appearance of the lamina cribrosa, where myelination stops, and what is left behind in normal development. Even though this is a disc with a very large cup, i...Image
141 2-53b - Venous PulsationsOn the disc, look for spontaneous venous pulsations. Spontaneous venous pulsations can be seen in the large trunks of veins at the level of the disc margin. They are normally present and seen in 37-90% of normals -- depending on the experience of the examiner and the shape of the disc. The spontaneo...Image
142 2-7a - Disc AnatomyThe optic disc appearance is determined by: the size of the eye, the size of the scleral canal, how the nerve is inserted into the globe, the appearance of the lamina cribrosa, where myelination stops, and what is left behind in normal development. Even though this is a disc with a very large cup, i...Image
143 2-53a - Venous PulsationsOn the disc, look for spontaneous venous pulsations. Spontaneous venous pulsations can be seen in the large trunks of veins at the level of the disc margin. They are normally present and seen in 37-90% of normals -- depending on the experience of the examiner and the shape of the disc. The spontaneo...Image
144 2-37b - Vascular FeaturesWhen looking at the disc, the central retinal artery and vein should be visible. The central retinal artery is usually slightly narrower than the vein. When the central retinal artery goes though the lamina cribrosa, the artery becomes smaller because of diminution of the muscular layer and loss of ...Image
145 Basal EncephalocelesText
146 4-54a -Optic Neuropathy, Ischemic: PosteriorImage
147 4-52b - Dominant Optic NeuropathyA son presented with bilateral optic atrophy of unknown etiology after he failed a school visual exam. When looking for dominant optic atrophy, look at the parents. Mother was examined to find similar kind of atrophy. 4-52a mother, 4-52b son.Image
148 Stage 2 - PapilledemaImage
149 Shunt Vessel MeningiomaRETINO-CHOROIDAL (OPTO-CILIARY) COLLATERAL VESSELS: (also known as Retinal-choroidal venous collaterals, opticociliary veins or ciliary shunt vessels) Retino-choroidal collaterals are potential telangiectatic connections between the retina and choroidal circulation. Although sometimes called "shunts...Image
150 Stages of PapilledemaText
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