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126 Sixth Nerve PalsyThis 46 year old patient had at age 6, a tendency for the left eye to wander out. Her face photograph at that age shows an exotropia and at age 7, a year later, the exotropia was not quite as prominent. It was assumed that the exotropia was due to a non-paralytic strabismus. Past History: ...Image/MovingImage
127 Fourth Nerve PalsyThe patient is a 32 year old, left handed chemistry teacher who presented with intermittent vertical double vision. In August 1992 she noted, particularly late in the evening when reading in bed, vertical double vision. The images were one on top of the other and on occasions one image was slig...Image/MovingImage
128 Paraneoplastic Opsoclonus; Downbeat NystagmusThe patient is Case 27-1995 Case Records of the Massachusetts General Hospital (New Eng. J Medicine 1995, 333:579-586). The discusser was Dr. Elizabeth Engle, Associate Professor of Neurology, Harvard Medical School. The baby girl was born after a 30 week gestation, with a birth weight of 1.25 k...Image/MovingImage
129 Bilateral Sixth Nerve PalsyThis patient is a 62 year old woman with a six month history of double vision and difficulty walking. In August 1996, she first noted her right upper eyelid twitching followed by dizziness, nausea and vomiting. Soon after her voice became "shaky" and she experienced mild difficulty walking. She...Image/MovingImage
130 Congenital NystagmusThis 11 year old Italian boy was referred for evaluation of nystagmus. Emanuel is the second son in a family of two and his older brother, age 13, had no visual problem. Emanuel was born at term, normal delivery, birth weight 9 pounds. Neonatal and infant development was perfectly normal. A pedia...Image/MovingImage
131 Pendular Vertical OscillationsThis 36 year old woman had a nine year history of multiple sclerosis (MS) with onset in 1980. In 1989 she was seen in the neurovisual clinic for evaluation of oscillopsia, (an illusion of movement of the visual world). This symptom was accompanied by difficulty in reading because the print was "ju...Image/MovingImage
132 Slow Saccade SyndromeThe patient is a 62 year old woman referred from Ireland with a one year history of unsteadiness walking which she first noted following a fall from a chair. Her gait disorder was insidious in onset and may have pre-dated the fall. Since then she had become increasingly unsteady with a tendency to f...Image/MovingImage
133 Pendular Vertical OscillationsIn October 1988 this 43 year old Spanish speaking man with a history of hypertension, suddenly became weak and collapsed on the floor. He was taken to an outside hospital where his blood pressure was 220/130. He was lethargic and diaphoretic and had slurred speech and a left facial palsy. A CT s...Image/MovingImage
134 Psychogenic BlepharospasmThe patient is a 57 year old woman who presented in 1989, with a 3 year history of frequent eyelid blinking, twitching and twinking. She was under a good deal of stress and anxiety attributed to moving house after 26 years and losing touch with her friends and social activities. She was also conce...Image/MovingImage
135 Progressive External OphthalmoplegiaThe patient is a retired physician, age 70, who recalls having eye muscle exercises as a child way back in 1924. Years later, she noted difficulty in focusing her eyes on horizontal gaze to the right and left which preceded the onset of bilateral ptosis. She presented in 1985, at age 65, with mark...Image/MovingImage
136 Unilateral Internuclear OphthalmoplegiaThe patient is a 19 year old sophomore who presented in 1983 with numbness of the left hand, involving initially just the fingers, and numbness and weakness of the right side of the face. He described the numbness in his hand as if it was "intensely asleep". The facial numbness involved the peri...Image/MovingImage
137 Supranuclear Paralysis of Up and DowngazeThe patient is a 44 year old woman with a past history of ethanol abuse. She was transferred to the Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH) on 3/10/93 for evaluation of memory impairment, hypothalamic dysfunction and a one month history of diplopia and ataxia. In February 1992 (13 months PTA), she ...Image/MovingImage
138 Congenital NystagmusThis 34 year old physician has had a life long problem with congenital nystagmus. He was an orphan and his adopted parents took him to see a pediatrician when he was very small. A missed diagnosis of a "lazy eye" was made. Subsequently, at the age of 9, when he complained of intermittent blurred ...Image/MovingImage
139 Benign Neonatal Ocular FlutterShortly after birth, this baby was noted to have "jiggling eyes" by his mother. He was in good general health and neurologically intact. Cogan and I saw the baby and Cogan made the diagnosis of neonatal ocular flutter. In 1954 Cogan first used the term "ocular flutter" to describe a rare disorder o...Image/MovingImage
140 Progressive External OphthalmoplegiaThis 48 year old woman, who was first seen by a neurologist in March 1989, with a 7 year history of progressive unilateral ptosis, mild facial weakness and generalized fatigue. On examination she had ptosis of the right eye and bilateral limitation of upward gaze. Myasthenia Gravis was ruled out by...Image/MovingImage
141 Release HallucinationsThe patient is a 79 year old woman with a chief complaint of visual hallucinations. She carries a diagnosis of glaucoma and cataracts. The patient was in good health until two weeks prior to admission when she noted a black cloud in her visual field in the top central area. The cloud gradually c...Image/MovingImage
142 Migraine Visual AuraThe patient is a 9 year old right handed boy who developed headaches in 1993 at the age of 8. At that time he told his mother that he had bad headaches starting at the back of the head, usually bioccipital, spreading over the top of the head to his forehead. The headaches were short in duration la...Image/MovingImage
143 Paraneoplastic OpsoclonusThis patient is the index case of the Anti-Ri antibody, published in Annals of Neurology in 1988 (4). The Anti-Ri antibody is recognized to be a paraneoplastic marker in patients with breast and gynecological malignancies (10). The history of this case is particularly important because she was in...Image/MovingImage
144 Essential Palatal TremorThe patient is a 25 year old meteorologist from Tennessee who came to Boston in the summer of 1992 to vacation with his family on the Cape. His illness started with flu-like symptoms, low grade fever from 99 to 100F, sweating and episodes of light headedness associated with occasional nausea, indige...Image/MovingImage
145 Bilateral Ptosis Facial DiplegiaThe patient is a 74 year old woman who one month prior to admission suffered from a non-productive cough, right ear pain, and pharyngitis treated with amoxicillin. On the day prior to admission she awoke with blurred vision and horizontal and vertical diplopia that persisted all day. The next m...Image/MovingImage
146 Downbeat NystagmusThe patient is a 59 year old woman who carried a diagnosis of: 1. Congenital anomaly of the occipito-cervical junction with occipitalization of the C1 ring 2. Basilar invagination with Chiari Type I 3. A syrinx in the center of the cervical-thoracic spinal cord extending from C2 to T4 In 1957, at ag...Image/MovingImage
147 Palatal TremorThe patient is a 60 year old woman with insulin dependent diabetes mellitus. She was legally blind as a result of diabetic retinopathy and bilateral vitreous hemorrhage. In 1987, she was admitted to her local hospital with slurred speech and a right hemiparesis progressing over a period of three d...Image/MovingImage
148 Convergence InsufficiencyThe patient is a 73 year old man with a ten year history of idiopathic Parkinson's disease characterized by difficulty in walking, generalized rigidity and a mild tremor of his hands at rest with deterioration in his handwriting. He denied any memory impairment or loss of cognitive function. He w...Image/MovingImage
149 Transient Monocular BlindnessThe patient is a 61 year old lawyer who carried a diagnoses of late onset diabetes mellitus, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and glaucoma. He presented with transient blurred vision in his left eye (OS) In June 1989 whilst standing in the intense sunlight in the parking lot of a shopping mall, the p...Image/MovingImage
150 Downbeat NystagmusThis 58 year old engineer was referred by his neurologist for evaluation of periodic episodes of difficulty focusing and blurred vision for 8 years. In 1981 whilst sightseeing in Newport, he became acutely aware of difficulty focusing and blurry vision. The symptoms lasted for twenty minutes and t...Image/MovingImage
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