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126 Risk of mortality following widowhood: age and sex differences by mode of deathThis study examines how spouses' deaths from sudden or lengthy illnesses differentially affect the mortality risks of surviving widows and widowers by age. Using the Panel Study of Income Dynamics, we find the mortality risk differs by gender, age, and type of widowhood. For nonelderly ( < 65) wido...Risk of mortality; Widowhood; Sex differences; Role theory1996
127 Distinguishing the spending preferences of seniorsOne thousand, four hundred and six seniors were asked about their consumer spending preferences. While some could name a product spending preference, others could not. This study examines the characteristics that best distinguish those elders who are uninterested in spending on consumer products fro...Spending preferences; Seniors1996
128 Determinants of first sex by age 14 in a high-risk adolescent populationA study using data for mothers from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth and their children aged 14 or older indicates that, after accounting for a wide range of demographic and socioeconomic antecedents, children are significantly more likely to become sexually active before age 14 if their m...1996
129 Ascertainment bias in estimates of average heterozygosityPopulation geneticists work with a nonrandom sample of the human genome. Conventional practice ensures that unusually variable loci are most likely to be discovered and thus included in the sample of loci. Consequently, estimates of average heterozygosity are biased upward. In what follows we descri...Bias (Epidemiology); Biometry; Heterozygote1996-05
130 Post-occupancy evaluation of wayfinding in a pediatric hospital: research findings and implications for instructionA post-occupancy evaluation (POE) of way finding in a new pediatric hospital pointed to a wide range of areas where wayfinding aids could be improved. After initial walk-through evaluation tours and meetings with administrators, five more systematic methods were used to assess problems: staff and vi...Hospitals; Wayfinding; Signage1997
131 Different voices of gender: social recognitionMany researchers have shown that men and women speak differently. In this paper we examine whether these differences extend to the interpretation of speech. Men and women were recorded as they described their participation in a common interpersonal dilemma.Gender differences1997
132 Hadza women's time allocation, offspring provisioning, and the evolution of long postmenopausal life spansExtended provisioning of offspring and long postmenopausal life spans are characteristic of all modern humans but no other primates. These traits may have evolved in tandem. Analysis of relationships between women's time allocation and children's nutritional welfare among the Hadza of northern Tanza...Child care; Children, nutrition; Life spans, Biology; Mother & child; Primates; Social structure; Women; Time Management; Hominids1997
133 A dynamic systems approach to infant facial actionWhat does it mean when a baby smiles? Is it an expression of enjoyment, a signal to a partner that rewards effective caretaking, or simply a muscular contraction? Do physically different types of smiles indicate different things? Should the social context in which an infant smiles inform our unders...1997
134 Intergenerational transfers, social solidarity, and social policy: unanswered questions and policy challengesLe transfert intergenerationnel constitue l'essence de la continuite societale et pourtant, il demeure mal conceptualise et analyse. Il se situe Egalement au centre du concept de l'etat sur le bien-etre quant a la redistribution des ressources et partant, des changements/defis actuels quant aux mes...Intergenerational transfers; Social solidarity; Social continuity; Redistribution1997
135 Preschool assessment of attachment: construct validity in a sample of depressed and nondepressed families.Construct validity of the newly developed Preschool Assessment of Attachment (PAA) was examined in a sample of depressed and nondepressed mothers and their preschoolers, focusing on attachment related differences in children's general caregiving environments, maternal psychosocial functioning, and c...Preschoolers; Families; Maternal, psychosocial functioning; Mothers; Children, caregiving; Attachment1997-07
136 Mother-toddler interaction patterns associated with maternal depression.Interactive coordination was observed in laboratory play interactions of pairs of 29 clinically depressed and 14 nondepressed mothers and their 13-29-month-old children (M = 18.9 months). Nondepressed mothers and their children displayed more interactive coordination than depressed-mother dyads (p <...Depression; Child-rearing; Infants; Motherhood1997-09
137 Flexible correction processes in social judgment: implications for persuasionTwo experiments were conducted to examine correction for perceived bias in persuasion situations. Study 1 showed that, although a manipulation of source likability had an impact on attitudes when no instruction to remove bias was present, when people were asked to remove any bias from their judgmen...Manipulation; Likability; Biasing1998
138 Public policy, demographic aging and familiesVoodoo demographics, a term coined by American economist James Schulz in the late 1980s, describes the belief that aging populations pose threats to life and society as we know it, particularly to social safety nets, education, public health care, as well as challenges to families. Surprisingly, the...1998
139 Review of the economics of family time useTime is a limited resource. Yet, it is also the one resource with which all individuals are equally endowed on any given day. Why then is there such wide variation in how each of us chooses to use that time? What factors guide our decisions about time spent working versus time spent with family and...1998
140 Sex, contraception and childbearing among high-risk youth: do different factors influence males and females?During adolescence, many young people begin to experiment with new roles. One important area of exploration is sexual activity, which involves a certain amount of risk-taking.1998
141 Educational attainment and transitions in functional status among older TaiwaneseThere is a lengthy history of research examining the relationship between socioeconomic status and health and mortality in Western societies (Antonovsky 1967; Fox 1989; Williams and Collins 1995). Almost unanimously, these investigations show that those with high socioeconomic status are advantaged ...Educational attainment; Functional status; Older Taiwanese1998
142 Why is testosterone associated with divorce in men?There is evidence that in women high levels of testosterone are associated with more sexual partners and more permissive sexual attitudes. If a similar relationship holds true for men, the higher basal testosterone levels of divorced and unmarried men may be caused by this relationship rather than b...Marriage; Separation; Hormones; Sexuality1998-06
143 On emergency decisions, egalitarianism, and group selectionBoehm (CA 37:763-93) puts forward an important thesis-that with the evolution of egalitarian societies, privileged routes to reproductive advantage are blocked and the power of individua selection severely compromised. With competition so constrained, altruistic behavior can more readily spread i...Boehm's mode; Evolution of altruistic behavior1998-06
144 On network analysis: the potential for understanding (and misunderstanding) !Kung HxaroSchweizer's social network analysis (CA 38: 739-52) of gift giving among the !Kung San (Ju/'hoansi) demonstrates most elegantly how individual strategies, guided by basic cultural rules, coalesce to form a regional system. Complex connections in the network that defied description with simpler anayt...Density of kinship; Nonsymmetry; Ethnohistorica1998-08
145 Dialogue on the future of ChinaThree Chinese scholars speak to the question: How do you think the June 4th movement of 1989 will be remembered-----as another May 4th 1919, the threshold of a period of general political awakening and turbulence, or instead as a Chinese version of 1848 or 1968 in Europe: a last spontaneous explosio...China; Politics; Social conditions1999
146 Trends in the intergenerational transmission of divorceNumerous researchers have shown that the children of divorce are disproportionately likely to end their own marriages (e.g., Amato 1996; Amato and Booth 1991; Bumpass, Martin, and Sweet 1991; Glenn and Kramer 1987; Kulka and Weingarten 1979; McLanahan and Bumpass 1988; Mueller and Pope 1977; Pope a...1999
147 Resourceful responses: the adaptive research university and the drive to marketA major challenge for contemporary public research universities is the need to affirm to the public and to the political community that the quality of higher education found at these largely autonomous institutions is of such import that it should be sustained by both public and private support. Thi...State Universities; Higher Education; Public institutions1999
148 Personnel policy, costs of experimentation, and racial inequality in the Pre-World War II NorthBetween 1910 and 1940, the black population of the northern United States nearly tripled, rising from just over I million to more than 2.7 million, signaling the start of the "Great Migration" of African-Americans out of the South. As black workers entered the North, they sought positions in new sec...Race bias; Personnel policies; African Americans; Employment opportunities1999
149 Reductions in criminality subsequent to group, individual, and family therapy in adolescent residential and day treatment settingsThe complete population of adolescents in a residential and day-treatment program over a 4-year period, 532youths, served in two studies. Along with residential and day-treatment settings, predictive variables of interest were the number of hours spent in group, individual, and family therapy. A tot...Group therapy; Individual therapy; Family therapy1999
150 Sex, dating, passionate friendships, and romance: intimate peer relations among lesbian, gay, and bisexual adolescentsAlthough the raw number of adolescent romantic and sexual involvements is well documented, the actual experience and meaning of these relationships for adolescents receives little attention. As a result, these relationships are frequently classed together on the basis of surface similarities, despi...Teenagers; Relationships; Sex; Dating; Romance; Gays; Lesbians; Bisexuals1999
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