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101 Ocular Manifestations of Congenital/Inherited DiseasesAAO/NANOS - American Academy of Ophthalmology / North American Neuro-Ophthalmology SocietyPatients with olivopontocerebellar atrophy may exhibit signs of ocular motor deficits, such as ocular motor apraxia or cerebellar eye signs, and peripheral pigmentary retinopathy and optic atrophy. Pair with 94_54.
102 Orbital TumorsAAO/NANOS - American Academy of Ophthalmology / North American Neuro-Ophthalmology SocietyCavernous hemangiomas of the orbit usually result in painless orbital signs such as proptosis or visual loss. Orbital imaging of the lesion, which usually is a well-defined orbital mass, is demonstrated in this study. The lesion is benign and usually occurs in young to middle-aged adults. Surgical e...
103 Orbital TumorsAAO/NANOS - American Academy of Ophthalmology / North American Neuro-Ophthalmology SocietyCavernous hemangiomas of the orbit usually result in painless orbital signs such as proptosis or visual loss. Orbital imaging of the lesion, which usually is a well-defined orbital mass, is demonstrated in this study. The lesion is benign and usually occurs in young to middle-aged adults. Surgical e...
104 Orbital TumorsAAO/NANOS - American Academy of Ophthalmology / North American Neuro-Ophthalmology SocietyCavernous hemangiomas of the orbit usually result in painless orbital signs such as proptosis or visual loss. Orbital imaging of the lesion, which usually is a well-defined orbital mass, is demonstrated in this study. The lesion is benign and usually occurs in young to middle-aged adults. Surgical e...
105 Neuro-Ophthalmic Imaging-CT ScanAAO/NANOS - American Academy of Ophthalmology / North American Neuro-Ophthalmology SocietyIdiopathic orbital pseudotumor is an inflammatory disorder that may effect any part of the ocular anatomy. The site of inflammation determines the nomenclature. For example, involvement of the sclera is referred to as scleritis. And involvement of one or more of the extraocular muscles is referred t...
106 Motility DisturbancesAAO/NANOS - American Academy of Ophthalmology / North American Neuro-Ophthalmology SocietySkew deviation is a vertical deviation that is not localized to any one muscle or muscle group. The deviation may be comitant or not, and intermittent or constant. Skew deviation is often defined by the company it keeps, that is, skew usually occurs in association with other brain-stem signs, and is...
107 Motility DisturbancesAAO/NANOS - American Academy of Ophthalmology / North American Neuro-Ophthalmology SocietySkew deviation is a vertical deviation that is not localized to any one muscle or muscle group. The deviation may be comitant or not, and intermittent or constant. Skew deviation is often defined by the company it keeps, that is, skew usually occurs in association with other brain-stem signs, and is...
108 Ocular Manifestations of Systemic DisordersAAO/NANOS - American Academy of Ophthalmology / North American Neuro-Ophthalmology SocietyMyasthenia gravis should be considered in any patient with painless, pupil-spared, nonapoptotic ophthalmoplegia. It may mimic any ophthalmoparesis. Involvement of the medical rectus may result in a pseudointernuclear ophthalmoplegia. Pair with 96_24 and 96_25.
109 Ocular Manifestations of Systemic DisordersAAO/NANOS - American Academy of Ophthalmology / North American Neuro-Ophthalmology SocietyMyasthenia gravis should be considered in any patient with painless, pupil-spared, nonapoptotic ophthalmoplegia. It may mimic any ophthalmoparesis. Involvement of the medical rectus may result in a pseudointernuclear ophthalmoplegia. Pair with 96_23 and 96_25.
110 Ocular Manifestations of Systemic DisordersAAO/NANOS - American Academy of Ophthalmology / North American Neuro-Ophthalmology SocietyMyasthenia gravis should be considered in any patient with painless, pupil-spared, nonapoptotic ophthalmoplegia. It may mimic any ophthalmoparesis. Involvement of the medical rectus may result in a pseudointernuclear ophthalmoplegia. Pair with 96_23 and 96_24.
111 Motility DisturbancesAAO/NANOS - American Academy of Ophthalmology / North American Neuro-Ophthalmology SocietyTraumatic damage to the third cranial nerve may result in aberrant regeneration of fibers that innervate the eyelid, pupil, or extraocular muscles. For instance, there may be lid retraction in attempted downgaze. Any combination of aberrant activation of third nerve-innervated structures may occur, ...
112 Isolated Optic Neuritis/NeuropathyAAO/NANOS - American Academy of Ophthalmology / North American Neuro-Ophthalmology SocietyPapilledema in pseudotumor cerebri may result in adjacent choroidal or retinal folds.
113 Isolated Optic Neuritis/NeuropathyAAO/NANOS - American Academy of Ophthalmology / North American Neuro-Ophthalmology SocietyPapilledema may produce visual loss due to chronic atrophic papilledema, secondary macular hemorrhage, exudate or edema, secondary ischemic optic neuropathy, or secondary subretinal neovascular membrane formation.
114 Isolated Optic Neuritis/NeuropathyAAO/NANOS - American Academy of Ophthalmology / North American Neuro-Ophthalmology SocietyPapilledema is a term reserved for optic disc edema related to increased intracranial pressure. Fluid within the optic nerve sheath or elevation of the intraocular optic nerve head may be visible on magnetic resonance imaging studies of the head and orbit.
115 Ocular Manifestations of Systemic DisordersAAO/NANOS - American Academy of Ophthalmology / North American Neuro-Ophthalmology SocietyThyroid eye disease may cause proptosis and extraocular muscle enlargement that may be seen on orbital imaging studies. In general, coronal images allow the best visualization of the extraocular muscle enlargement. Pair with 94_45 and 94_46.
116 Ocular Manifestations of Systemic DisordersAAO/NANOS - American Academy of Ophthalmology / North American Neuro-Ophthalmology SocietyThyroid eye disease may cause proptosis and extraocular muscle enlargement that may be seen on orbital imaging studies. In general, coronal images allow the best visualization of the extraocular muscle enlargement. Pair with 94_44 and 94_46.
117 Ocular Manifestations of Systemic DisordersAAO/NANOS - American Academy of Ophthalmology / North American Neuro-Ophthalmology SocietyThyroid eye disease may cause proptosis and extraocular muscle enlargement that may be seen on orbital imaging studies. In general, coronal images allow the best visualization of the extraocular muscle enlargement. Pair with 94_44 and 94_45.
118 Ocular Manifestations of Systemic DisordersAAO/NANOS - American Academy of Ophthalmology / North American Neuro-Ophthalmology SocietyThyroid eye disease may result in proptosis and restrictive external ophthalmoplegia. The extracoular muscles are often diffusely enlarged with sparing of the tendons.
119 Ocular Manifestations of Systemic DisordersAAO/NANOS - American Academy of Ophthalmology / North American Neuro-Ophthalmology SocietyThyroid eye disease can result in significant upper eyelid retraction and axial proptosis resulting in exposure keratopathy.
120 Motility DisturbancesAAO/NANOS - American Academy of Ophthalmology / North American Neuro-Ophthalmology SocietyCyclical oculomotor paresis may occur in patients as an intermittent phenomenon, with a paretic phase and diplopia and intervals that are nonparetic. The history and examination are classic for the disorder. Pair with Images 95_19 and 95_20.
121 Motility DisturbancesAAO/NANOS - American Academy of Ophthalmology / North American Neuro-Ophthalmology SocietyCyclical oculomotor paresis may occur in patients as an intermittent phenomenon, with a paretic phase and diplopia and intervals that are nonparetic. The history and examination are classic for the disorder. Pair with Images 95_18 and 95_20.
122 Motility DisturbancesAAO/NANOS - American Academy of Ophthalmology / North American Neuro-Ophthalmology SocietyCyclical oculomotor paresis may occur in patients as an intermittent phenomenon, with a paretic phase and diplopia and intervals that are nonparetic. The history and examination are classic for the disorder. Pair with Images 95_18 and 95_19.
123 Neuro-Ophthalmic Imaging-MRIAAO/NANOS - American Academy of Ophthalmology / North American Neuro-Ophthalmology SocietyAneurisms may result in neuro-ophthalmologic sign and symptoms by direct compression of the afferent or efferent systems or by the secondary effects of hemorrhage. Basilar aneurisms may result in ocular motor deficits such as a unilateral or bilateral third nerve palsy.
124 Neuro-Ophthalmic Imaging-MRIAAO/NANOS - American Academy of Ophthalmology / North American Neuro-Ophthalmology SocietyAneurisms may result in neuro-ophthalmologic sign and symptoms by direct compression of the afferent or efferent systems or by the secondary effects of hemorrhage. Basilar aneurisms may result in ocular motor deficits such as a unilateral or bilateral third nerve palsy.
125 Acquired Disc ChangesAAO/NANOS - American Academy of Ophthalmology / North American Neuro-Ophthalmology SocietyAlthough optociliary shunt vessels are venous collaterals that form in response to chronic venous obstruction, they may occur in patients with chronic open-angle glaucoma.
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