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101 Health care in an aging Canada: constraint or choice?It is often presumed that population aging will result in increased demand for health care, with older Canadians seen as a "burden" to the working population. Yet, such a presumption of direct correlation (with implied causality) belies the complex questions of societal choices in expenditures: fac...Age factors; Canada; Health care costs1994
102 Size of the bursa of fabricius in relation to gonad size and age in laysan and black-footed albatrossesAge determination can be difficult for birds that undergo little or no plumage change during life. This is the case for Laysan and Black-footed Albatrosses (Diomedea immutabilis and D. nigripes). The juvenile plumage for both these North Pacific albatrosses is completely grown by about five to six m...Birds; Species; Development1994
103 Genetic structure of the Utah Mormons: comparison of results based on RFLPs, blood groups, migration matrices, isonymy, and pedigreesThe genetic structure of the Utah Mormon population is examined using 25 blood group and 47 RFLP alleles obtained from 442 subjects living in 8 geographic subdivisions. Nei's Gst was 0.013 (p < 0.002) for the RFLP data and 0.012 (p > 0.4) for the blood group data, showing that only 1% of the geneti...1994
104 Biochemical heterozygosity and morphologic variation in a colony of papio hamadryas hamadryas baboonsThis analysis examines the association between genetic heterozygosity and individual morphologic variation in a captive population of Papio hamadryas hamadryas consisting of 403 juveniles and adults. The population structure of the colony was artificially generated and maintained and is thus rigoro...Population genetics; Polygenic; Inbreeding1994
105 Double jeopardy: interaction effects of marital and poverty status on the risk of mortalityThe purpose of this paper is to examine the hypothesis that marital and poverty status interact in their effects on mortality risks beyond their main effects. This study examines the epidemiological bases for applying an additive rather than a multiplicative specification when testing for interacti...National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey1994
106 Capacity demands of automatic processes in semantic primingIn three experiments, we examined the effects of prime-target stimulus onset asynchrony (SSA) and the proportion of related primes and targets (relatedness proportion, or RP) on semantic priming when the prime was either named or was searched for a specific letter . In Experiment 1, with an RP of ....Semantic priming; Stimulus onset asynchrony1994
107 On life history evolution (a comment on Chisholm)Chisholm (CA 34:I-24) is right that the theory, models, and data of evolutionary biology apply to questions asked by social scientists. Work in life-history theory (Stearns 1992, Roff 1992, Charnov 1993) has especially provocative implications for the understanding of human development (see review i...1994-01-01
108 Evolution of time preference by natural selectionThis paper entertains the hypothesis that human time preferences are in evolutionary equilibrium (i.e. that no mutation changing time preferences could be favored by natural selection). This hypothesis implies that the marginal rate of substitution (MRS) holding Darwinian fitness constant must equal...Capitalism; Econometric models; Equilibrium1994-06
109 Wage compression and wage inequality between black and white males in the United States, 1940-1960The gap between the mean wages of black men and white men in the United States narrowed substantially between 1940 and 1950. There was, however, almost no change in this wage gap between 1950 and 1960. Some of this discontinuity in the path of black progress can be explained by general changes in th...Salaries; Race; Compensation1994-06
110 Gray agendas: interest groups and public pensions in Canada, Britain, and the United States, by Henry J. PrattGray Agendas, by Wayne State University's Henry J. Pratt, is an in-depth and well-structured examination of the historical development of pension policy and its impact on interest groups in three countries over the last century: Canada, Britain, and the United States. It is of interest to political...Gray agendas; Book review; Pratt, Henry J.; United States; Canada; Great Britain1995
111 Work, retirement and women in later lifeResearch on the labour market experiences of mid-life and older women is increasing, revealing new knowledge, but also showing us how much is not yet known. Retirement remains, for the most part, a presumed life transition for men, but not necessarily for women. Despite the growing, but still small ...Women; Retirement; Mid-life; Canada1995
112 Degrees of inequality: the advance of black male workers in the northern meat packing and steel industries before World War IIRecent major works on long-term racial inequality in the labor market revolve around competing hypotheses concerning the importance of human capital factors (Smith and Welch 1989) and government policy (Donohue and Heckman 1991) in promoting black advance. There is however, another line or thinking ...Labor markets; Northern employers; Racial inequality1995
113 Hadza children's foraging: juvenile dependency, social arrangement and mobility among hunter-gatherersPresents a study on the foraging activities of Hadza children in Tanzania, Africa. Success of children's foraging; Determinants of children's foraging; Monitoring of the activities of children; Near-camp foraging return rates; Variables underlying the patterns of foraging.Children; Foraging; Hazda; Hunter-gatherers1995
114 Ovarian cancer mortality among immigrants in Australia and CanadaThis study examined the impact of changing environments on ovarian cancer by comparing age standardized mortality rates of numerous immigrant groups in Australia and Canada to those in the origin countries for the period 1984-1988. Mortality rates by length of residence in Australia (0-29 and 30+ y...Ovarian cancer; Immigrants; Australia; Canada; Mortality1995
115 Origins and affinities of modern humans: a comparison of mitochondrial and nuclear genetic dataTo test hypotheses about the origin of modern humans, we analyzed mtDNA sequences, 30 nuclear restriction-site polymorphisms (RSPs), and 30 tetranucleotide short tandem repeat (STR) polymorphisms in 243 Africans, Asians, and Europeans. An evolutionary tree based on mtDNA displays deep African branch...Base Sequence; Variation (Genetics); Base Sequence1995
116 Approche sociologique feministe pour l'ettude de la fecondite.L'essor d'une perspective feministe de la fecondite provient de plusieurs endroits et se situe a des niveaux varies. Avant d'esquisser ceux qui serviront de base aux discussions de ce chapitre, une breve histoire de ce contexte parait de mise. Il y a une vingtaine d'annees, alors que les sciences...Fecundity; Feminist sociology1995
117 Genetic evidence for a Pleistocene population explosionExpansions of population size leave characteristic signatures in mitochondrial "mismatch distributions." Consequently, these distributions can inform us about the history of changes in population size. Here, I study a simple model of population history that assumes that, t generations before the pr...1995
118 Making the effort: the racial contours of Detroit's labor markets, 1920-1940In 1940 the Ford Motor Company employed half of the black men in Detroit but only 14 percent of the whites. The authors postulate that black Detroiters were concentrated at Ford because they were excluded from working elsewhere. Those most affected were young married black men. A Ford job was vir...Automotive workers - Blacks; Ford Motor Company1995
119 Role of prenatal expectations in parents' reports of infant temperamentThe associations were examined among parents' characteristics, their prenatal expectations for and postpartum perceptions of infant temperament, and observers' ratings of temperament. During pregnancy and at 3 months postpartum, 70 primiparous women and their husbands completed several mood and anx...1995
120 Genetic evidence on modern human originsA review of genetic evidence leads to the following conclusions concerning human population history: (1) Between 33,000 and 150,000 years ago the human population expanded from an initial size of perhaps 10,000 breeding individuals, reaching a size of at least 300,000. (2) Although the initial popu...Population history; Mitochondrial DNA; Mismatch distribution; Intermatch distribution; Replacement hypothesis; Population bottlenecks1995
121 Data and social science rhetoric: policy and instructionI believe that social science and empirical investigation can make important contributions to our understanding and to resolution of policy issues, but only if we are clear on the nature of social science and the role of quantification. In particular we must admit the limits of our truth claims, th...Social sciences; Quantification; Empirical investigation1996
122 Global process and local ecology: how should we explain differences between the Hadza and the !Kung?In this chapter we discuss explanations for the diversity of behavior of contemporary forager populations. Other contributors document variation among southern African savanna Bushman groups, and central African forest Pygmies. We confine ourselves to trying to explain some differences between two ...1996
123 Association of physical and behavioral characteristics with menstrual cycle patterns in women age 29-31 yearsWe examined the association between menstrual cycle characteristics(cycle length, variability, and bleeding length) and physical and behavioral attributes in 766 women age 29-31 years. Menstrual cycled at a were prospectively recorded as part of the Menstruation and Reproductive History Study of col...1996
124 China: six years after TiananmenSix years ago, immediately after the democratic movement was repressed in China, almost all Chinese liberal intellectuals and Western observers predicted that, without "political reform," "economic reform" would fail in China. Despite their warnings, tens of billions of dollars have continued to po...China; Economic reform; Political reform1996
125 Teaching the concept of precycling: a campaign and evaluationABSTRACT: Precycling, or purchasing wisely to reduce waste, is the EPA-preferred way to conserve resources and extend landfill life. A 3-month campaign of radio, television, and in-store advertising was effective at teaching the concept of precycling. After the campaign, telephone interviews indicat...Recycling; EPA; Waste management1996
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