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101 Oscillopsia and bilateral vestibular loss with gentamicin ototoxicityPatients with bilateral vestibular loss commonly experience oscillopsia with head movements, or an inability to stabilize retinal images with subsequent bouncing or jumping of the environment due to loss of vestibular function. This causes significant blurring of vision and disorientation, dizziness...Image/MovingImage
102 Oscillopsia: a common symptom of bilateral vestibular lossThis video is an example of what a patient with bilateral vestibular loss experiences while walking. Without a VOR, there is no mechanism to ensure retinal stability of the world with each head movement, and oscillopsia (illusion of movement of the stationary environment) is the result. Jumpy vision...Image/MovingImage
103 Paraneoplastic downbeat nystagmus and cerebellar ataxia due to small cell lung carcinomaThis is a 61-year-old woman (non-smoker) who developed a gait disorder, dizziness and oscillopsia that was progressive over 2 months. Exam demonstrated spontaneous downbeat nystagmus with side pocket nystagmus in lateral gaze (a combination of horizontal gaze-evoked and downbeat nystagmus, giving an...
104 Parinaud's syndrome in a man with GBM of the pineal glandThis is a 60-yo-man who presented with diplopia, headaches, and difficulty looking up, and was found to have a mass involving the pineal gland. Biopsy was diagnostic of a GBM. Major features of Parinaud's (dorsal midbrain) syndrome were present including: upgaze palsy, convergence retraction nystagm...Image/MovingImage
105 Parinaud's syndrome with impaired upward saccades and otherwise normal vertical eye movementsThis is a 50-yo-man who suffered a dorsal midbrain stroke. Exam demonstrated normal vertical range of eye movements, normal vertical VOR and smooth pursuit, but inability to perform upward saccades. Another feature of Parinaud's syndrome seen on his exam was light-near dissociation (not shown in thi...Image/MovingImage
106 Paroxysmal Ocular Tilt ReactionThis is a 60-year-old woman who 2 years prior experienced a left sided hypertensive hemorrhagic stroke, resulting in right hemiparesis, dysarthria and vertical diplopia. The initial vertical diplopia resolved completely and about 6 months following the hemorrhage the patient began to experience many...
107 Pendular nystagmus and ocular motor signs in MSThis is a 30-year-old man with a 15 year history of multiple sclerosis. For the last 12 months, he experienced horizontal oscillopsia. On examination, there were ocular motor abnormalities including gaze-evoked nystagmus, saccadic smooth pursuit, and hypermetric saccades which were attributable to h...
108 Pendular nystagmus and vision lossThree patients are presented here, each with poor vision (counting fingers or worse) related to retinitis pigmentosa in one patient (Usher's syndrome) and optic neuropathy in two patients, each of whom developed pendular nystagmus after vision loss developed. Visually mediated movements normally pre...Image/MovingImage
109 Pendular, gaze-evoked and abducting nystagmus in MSThis is a 40-year-old woman with a history of multiple sclerosis who presented for oscillopsia. On examination, she had bilateral internuclear ophthalmoplegia (INO-adduction lag OU and abducting nystagmus OU), with a corresponding exotropia that increased in right and left gaze. She also had horiz...
110 Periodic Alternating Nystagmus due to Spinocerebellar Ataxia Type 6This 50-yo-man complained of imbalance for several years and more recently oscillopsia. On examination, there was saccadic pursuit and VOR suppression in addition to gaze-evoked nystagmus with rebound, raising suspicion for a vestibulocerebellar localization. Additionally, there was periodic alterna...Image/MovingImage
111 Periodic alternating nystagmus and perverted head-shaking nystagmus in cerebellar degenerationThis is a 60-yo-woman with several years of worsening imbalance, diplopia (hers was actually unrelated to cerebellar pathology [although she did have an esotropia greater at distance that was cerebellar in origin] and due to thyroid eye disease) and blurry vision (due to her spontaneous nystagmus). ...Image/MovingImage
112 Periodic alternating nystagmus due to nodulus strokeThis is a 70-year-old woman who experienced the acute onset of vertigo and imbalance. MRI demonstrated a diffusion-weighted imaging hyperintensity involving the nodulus (with corresponding ADC hypointensity) consistent with an acute stroke. On examination several weeks after the stroke, periodic alt...
113 Peripheral (vestibular) and central (gaze-evoked) patterns of nystagmus in a single patientA 55-year-old man experienced episodic vertigo and was diagnosed with Meniere's disease affecting the left ear (based on audiograms and his clinical course) about 1 year prior to presentation. About 6 months prior to presentation, intratympanic (IT) gentamicin was injected into the left ear, at whic...
114 Pontine hemorrhage causing oculopalatal tremor and multiple cranial neuropathiesThis is a 45-yo-woman who had a dorsal pontine cavernoma that bled 2 years prior to this video. Symptoms included diplopia and oscillopsia. On examination, she had left>right facial palsies (upper and lower face from involvement of the nucleus/fascicle - i.e., lower motor neuron palsies) and sixth n...Image/MovingImage
115 Positional downbeat nystagmus mimicking anterior canal BPPVAlthough positional downbeat nystagmus (pDBN) can indicate the rare anterior canal variant of benign paroxysmal positional vertigo, central mimics are common causes of pDBN. pDBN may be seen in multiple system atrophy (MSA), or seen with posterior fossa lesions, with a common example being a stroke ...Image/MovingImage
116 Post-infectious ocular flutter and myoclonus syndromeThis is a 35-yo-woman presenting with oscillopsia following a viral illness. She described being easily startled, with "shakiness" of the head/neck and body. She had myoclonus and ocular flutter, with the latter evident when she initiated saccades. Eye movement recordings showed that most of her sac...Image/MovingImage
117 Posterior Canal - BPPV: Epley and Semont maneuversEpley/canalith repositioning maneuver (CRP) To treat right posterior canal (PC)-BPPV (each position maintained for at least 30 seconds or until nystagmus and/or vertigo cease): • First the patient is placed in the long-sitting position • The head is rotated 45 degrees to the right • Then the p...Image/MovingImage
118 Posterior canal BPPV pre- and post-Epley maneuverThis is a patient with typical right posterior canal benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV), which was provoked by the Dix-Hallpike maneuver. When the patient was moved into the right Dix-Hallpike maneuver, after a brief latency, upbeat-torsional (towards the lowermost or affected [right] ear) ...
119 Posterior canal BPPV treated with Semont maneuverThis is a patient with left posterior canal (PC) benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV), and upbeat-torsional (towards the left ear) nystagmus was provoked by left Dix-Hallpike maneuver and left side-lying maneuver. This video demonstrates treatment of her left PC BPPV with the Semont maneuver....
120 Posterior canal BPPV with fixation and with fixation removedThis is a 60-yo-woman with positional vertigo. In the right Dix-Hallpike position with fixation removed, there was clear upbeat-torsional nystagmus (towards the lowermost right ear) which led to the diagnosis of right posterior canal BPPV. In right Dix-Hallpike with fixation there was mainly torsion...Image/MovingImage
121 Pressure testing for superior canal dehiscence syndromeSuperior semicircular canal dehiscence syndrome (SCDS) is caused by a third mobile window in the inner ear. This allows for transmission of sound or pressure to the superior canal. Tragal compression and/or glottic and pinched nose Valsalva may provoke vertigo and vertical-torsional nystagmus in t...
122 Prolonged lid twitch in myasthenia gravisThis 50-yo-woman with ocular MG demonstrated a spontaneous and particularly prolonged eyelid twitch.Image/MovingImage
123 Provocative maneuvers (removal of fixation, vibration, head-shaking) to accentuate peripheral vestibular nystagmus)With an acute destructive process like vestibular neuritis that causes significant unilateral vestibular loss, spontaneous nystagmus is always present. However, over days to months, spontaneous nystagmus should resolve completely. In a patient with vestibular neuritis involving the right side, left-...
124 Pseudo-INOs in myasthenia gravisThis is a 55-yo-woman with an intermittent exotropia who had normal adduction OU, but clear lag of adducting saccades OD>OS with rapid horizontal saccades. This was much more apparent after repeat testing (ie, it was fatigable), and she wound up having ocular MG.Image/MovingImage
125 Pseudo-spontaneous nystagmus and bow and lean test in horizontal canal BPPVThis is a 70-year-old woman presenting to the Emergency Department with positional vertigo that was determined to be due to the apogeotropic variant of right horizontal canal (HC) benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV). When her head is in a neutral position with the head in axis with the trunk...
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