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TitleDescriptionType
76 Horizontal Canal - BPPV: Gufoni for right apogeotropicTo treat the right apogeotropic (beating towards the sky with right ear down and with left ear down - e.g., left beating nystagmus with right supine roll test or with right ear down; right beating nystagmus with left supine roll test or with left ear down) horizontal canal (HC) variant: • The pati...Image/MovingImage
77 Horizontal Gaze Palsy, Facial Nerve Palsy, and Nystagmus Due to Dorsal Pontine IschemiaPresented here are two patients with horizontal gaze and facial palsies due to stroke. The first patient is a 60-year-old man who presented with double vision and hemiparesis due to a right dorsal pontine ischemic stroke. His exam was significant for a right horizontal gaze palsy due to right 6th nu...Image/MovingImage
78 Horner's syndrome with anhidrosisThis is a patient with the onset of ptosis OD years prior, with clear evidence of a Horner's syndrome. Imaging of the oculosympathetic tract was unrevealing. The patient also mentioned that with exercise, the left side of her face will sweat and turn red while the right side wouldn't. She took a pic...Image/MovingImage
79 Hyperventilation-induced downbeat nystagmus in a cerebellar disorderThis is a 45-year-old woman with a chronic progressive cerebellopathy of unclear etiology (worsening over at least 10 years) characterized by gait and limb ataxia, gaze-evoked nystagmus, saccadic pursuit and vestibulo-ocular reflex suppression, an esotropia greater at distance, along with very mild ...
80 Idiopathic downbeat nystagmus exacerbated with positional maneuversThis is a 45-yo-woman with vertical oscillopsia for 6+ months, found to have downbeat nystagmus on examination. She mainly complained of dizziness and oscillopsia when laying down. She was found to have a significant exacerbation in her baseline downbeat nystagmus with straight head hanging, and in ...Image/MovingImage
81 Idiopathic downbeat nystagmus exacerbated with positional maneuvers - Part 2: patient is now on 4-aminopyridineThis is a 45-yo-woman presented in "Idiopathic downbeat nystagmus exacerbated with positional maneuvers". This video was taken after the patient had been on 4-aminopyridine for 3 months. There was marked improvement in subjective oscillopsia and objective downbeat nystagmus. The strong positional co...Image/MovingImage
82 Idiopathic downbeat nystagmus, decreasing with convergenceThis is a 25-yo-woman who experienced vertically oscillopsia for 1 year, and was found to have downbeat nystagmus. Interestingly, there were no other cerebellar ocular motor signs - e.g., normal saccades, smooth pursuit, VOR suppression, and no gaze-evoked nystagmus, although her (pure) downbeat was...Image/MovingImage
83 Impaired smooth pursuit and other characteristic ocular motor findings in middle cerebellar peduncle strokeThis is a 50-year-old woman who underwent resection of a left-sided acoustic neuroma, and post-operatively, she had vertigo, binocular diplopia, left hemi-ataxia and severe gait ataxia. MR diffusion weighted imaging demonstrated an acute stroke involving the left middle cerebellar peduncle (MCP) and...
84 Inferior oblique overaction in a congenital 4th nerve palsy60-yo-man complaining of intermittent oblique diplopia. There was a left hypertropia that worsened in down gaze, right gaze and in left head tilt. There was a large vertical fusional amplitude in addition to a longstanding rightward head tilt, and on examination there was left inferior oblique overa...Image/MovingImage
85 INO in multiple sclerosisDescription: This video includes 3 patients each with a known history of MS found to have unilateral or bilateral INOs on their exam. In the first 2 patients, the INOs are relatively subtle with normal adduction. However, with rapid horizontal saccades, an adduction lag is apparent which is suggesti...Image/MovingImage
86 INOs in strokeThis video shows 3 patients with vascular risk factors who suffered strokes of the MLF resulting in unilateral INO in each case. In the second case, INO was diagnosed status post cardiac catherization and MRI was found to be normal. In the third case, the patient had a clear left medial rectus palsy...Image/MovingImage
87 Isolated central 4th nerve palsyThis is a 40-year-old man with a right hypertropia that worsened in left and down gaze in addition to right head tilt, and improved in left head tilt. There was subjective excyclotorsion OD with double Maddox rod testing. This was consistent with a right 4th nerve palsy. He had a known left midbrain...
88 Latent nystagmus and DVD in infantile esotropiaThis is a 20-year-old woman with infantile esotropia (s/p strabismus surgery as a child) who demonstrated latent nystagmus and presumed dissociated vertical deviation (DVD) OS, which are commonly seen with infantile esotropia (also inferior oblique overaction and monocular nasotemporal asymmetry to ...Image/MovingImage
89 Lateral pontine stroke involving the superior vestibular nucleus causing spontaneous upbeat-torsional nystagmusA 65-year-old man presented to the emergency department with spontaneous vertigo and unsteadiness, and had was noted to have spontaneous upbeat nystagmus (UBN), also with a torsional component (top poles beating toward the right ear) that was most noticeable in right and up gaze. General neurologic ...Image/MovingImage
90 Leukemic leptomeningeal carcinomatosis causing 4th and 6th nerve palsiesThis is a 55-yo-man with CML that recurred as AML. Diagonal diplopia developed, and on examination he was found to have a partial right 6th nerve palsy, in addition to a left hypertropia that increased in right gaze, down gaze, and in left head tilt consistent with a left 4th nerve palsy. There was ...Image/MovingImage
91 Maddox Rod and Red Glass TestingStrabismus basics
92 Measuring Divergence AmplitudeDivergence insufficiency should be suspected in patients with binocular horizontal diplopia at distance (but not near) who lack abduction deficits. There should be an esodeviation greater at distance, and in older patients with levator dehiscence (or previous ptosis surgery) and prominent superior s...
93 Medial longitudinal fasciculus syndrome with prominent spontaneous nystagmusThis is a 60-year-old man who experienced the abrupt onset of diplopia and imbalance. He had typical features of a left medial longitudinal fasciculus (MLF) syndrome including left internuclear ophthalmoplegia (INO) and left hypertropia from skew deviation, but he also had very prominent upbeat-tors...
94 Medial medullary syndromesThis is a video of two patients who suffered small strokes involving the right medial medulla, and who presented with acute vertigo and oscillopsia. The first patient in the video had pure upbeat nystagmus, while the second patient had upbeat-torsional (towards the right ear) nystagmus in addition t...Image/MovingImage
95 Medullary structures relevant to the ocular motor and vestibular consequences of lateral medullary (Wallenberg) syndromeThis is an axial section of the medulla showing the structures that, when damaged, are responsible for the vestibular and ocular motor features of the lateral medullary or Wallenberg syndrome. The nucleus prepositus hypoglossi (NPH) and medial vestibular nucleus (MVN) complex is important for horizo...
96 Medullary structures relevant to upbeat nystagmusThis is an axial section of the medulla, slightly more caudal as compared to (please refer to figure "medullary structures relevant to the ocular motor and vestibular consequences of the lateral medullary (Wallenberg) syndrome). Again seen are the inferior cerebellar peduncle (ICP) and caudal aspect...
97 Mesodiencephalic stroke causing unilateral riMLF and INC ocular motor syndromesThis is a 65-year-old man who experienced the sudden onset of diplopia (with horizontal and vertical components), dysarthria and imbalance. An MRI performed the following day showed a left mesodiencephalic stroke. The patient was seen in clinic 10 days later (when the video was taken), and by that t...
98 Mild 6th nerve palsy due to pontine strokeThis is a 70-year-old woman with HTN and diabetes who presented with horizontal diplopia for several weeks, worse in right gaze. There was a very subtle abduction paresis OD with full motility elsewhere. With cover-uncover testing, there was a small esotropia in right gaze (esodeviation seen with al...
99 Miller Fisher Syndrome - Ophthalmoplegia and HyperreflexiaThis is a 45-yo-woman who presented with mild imbalance and diplopia. There had been a preceding viral illness several weeks prior. Examination demonstrated horizontal gaze paresis (sparing unilateral adduction), mild gait ataxia (no clear appendicular ataxia), and hyperreflexia. Pupils were sluggis...Image/MovingImage
100 Miller Fisher Syndrome - Ophthalmoplegia, Ptosis and AtaxiaThis is a young man who presented with ptosis, difficulty moving the eyes and gait imbalance several weeks after a GI illness. Miller Fisher syndrome was diagnosed, IVIG therapy was initiated, and anti-Gq1b antibodies came back extremely elevated. In addition to ophthalmoplegia, and ataxia, hyporefl...Image/MovingImage
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