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76 Neonatal OpsoclonusThis child was one of the first cases of opsoclonus that I saw with Dr. Cogan in the early 1970's. He carried a diagnosis of strabismus with deviation of the left eye. In this child, opsoclonus occurred as a transient phenomenon in an otherwise healthy infant. For a complete overview of opsoclonus i...Image/MovingImage
77 Jaw WinkingThis little boy was born with congenital ptosis of the left eyelid, which "flicked up and down" when his jaw moved. The pediatrician made a diagnosis of the Marcus-Gunn jaw winking phenomenon was made. The first case of this unusual synkinesis between the pterygoid muscles and the levator musc...Image/MovingImage
78 Downbeat NystagmusIn 1984, this young woman was involved in a motor vehicle accident when her car was hit from behind. She struck her head on the dash board but had no loss of consciousness. She was able to get out of the car unaided and was immediately aware of pain in her neck. She thought that she had susta...Image/MovingImage
79 Downbeat NystagmusThis patient carries a diagnosis of Type I Chiari malformation. Neurological symptoms of a Chiari malformation may not develop until adolescence or adult life as in this man. The symptoms may be those of: 1. Increased intracranial pressure, mainly headache 2. Progressive cerebellar ataxia 3. Progre...Image/MovingImage
80 Downbeat NystagmusThis 58 year old engineer was referred by his neurologist for evaluation of periodic episodes of difficulty focusing and blurred vision for 8 years. In 1981 whilst sightseeing in Newport, he became acutely aware of difficulty focusing and blurry vision. The symptoms lasted for twenty minutes and t...Image/MovingImage
81 Downbeat Nystagmus - Periodic Alternating NystagmusThis patient carries a diagnosis of multiple sclerosis.Image/MovingImage
82 Apraxia Eyelid OpeningThis patient first presented to his PCP with increasing immobility. A diagnosis of Parkinson's disease was made. When his condition progressed, he was referred to the Neurology Clinic. Neuro-ophthalmological examination showed: Apraxia of eyelid opening Impaired initiation of horizontal saccades ...Image/MovingImage
83 Hemifacial SpasmThis patient is an atypical case of hemifacial spasm because he is a young college student only 29 years of age. Hemifacial spasm usually develops in the fifth and sixth decade of life and affects women more than men. It often begins insidiously in the orbicularis oculi muscle in the early stage...Image/MovingImage
84 Downbeat NystagmusThis patient carries a diagnosis of Type I Chiari malformation. In 1983 she presented with vertical double vision which persisted. Two months later, she had an acute episode of irritation of her eyes possibly due to allergy, followed two days later by difficulty in focusing, light headedness, a ...Image/MovingImage
85 LateropulsionThis 44 year old woman has a diagnosis of Multiple Sclerosis.Image/MovingImage
86 Congenital Ocular Motor ApraxiaThis little boy was born at term after a normal pregnancy. There was no family history of a neurological or ophthalmological disease. His mother noted from birth that he turned his head instead of his eyes and frequently tried to fix objects on either side by making a quick turn of the head past...Image/MovingImage
87 Opsoclonus -- In the DarkN/AImage/MovingImage
88 Congenital Ocular Motor ApraxiaThis baby was born at term after an uneventful pregnancy and normal delivery. He was the first and only child. There was no family history of any This baby was born at term after an uneventful pregnancy and normal delivery. He was the first and only child. There was no family history of any neurol...Image/MovingImage
89 Congenital Ocular Motor ApraxiaThis 3 year old boy was referred for evaluation of inattention. He was born at term after a normal pregnancy. He had been noted, in early childhood, to have difficulty looking to the right and to the left and was slow to read.Image/MovingImage
90 Apraxia of Eyelid OpeningIn January 1997, This 73 year old patient was referred to the Neurovisual Clinic. At that time his speech was slurred and he stated that his eyes were his "biggest" complaint due to: 1. Impaired focusing "close up" 2. His eyes shut spontaneously much of the time 3. Bright sunlight provoked eye ...Image/MovingImage
91 Supranuclear Paralysis of UpgazeThe patient is a 33 year old man who called the police to his apartment at 3 a.m. on the morning of admission. They found his apartment in a state of disarray and realized that he had been down on the floor for some hours and only just able to open the door to let them in. He was admitted to the l...Image/MovingImage
92 Ocular FlutterThis patient was seen in the Neurovisual Clinic for evaluation of a monocular attack of optic neuritis which completely resolved. Six months later, she became unsteady walking and was found to have bilateral ataxia. She was given a diagnosis of multiple sclerosis (MS). Neuro-ophthalmological examin...Image/MovingImage
93 Neonatal OpsoclonusThis child was one of the first cases of opsoclonus that I saw with Dr. Cogan in the early 1970's. The baby is a unique case in that in addition to neonatal opsoclonus with the characteristic multidirectional conjugate back-to-back saccades, periods of large amplitude upbeat nystagmus also occurred....Image/MovingImage
94 Parainfectious OpsoclonusThis child was one of a group of children with opsoclonus that I saw with Dr. Cogan in the early 1970's. This boy carries the diagnosis of parainfectious brainstem encephalitis. In the absence of myoclonus, myoclonic encephalopathy often referred to as dancing eyes and dancing feet was ruled out. ...Image/MovingImage
95 Paraneoplastic Opsoclonus/FlutterIn 1975 this patient presented with oscillopsia due to opsoclonus with ocular flutter. Opsoclonus with flutter is a paraneoplastic syndrome associated with occult cancer of the breast, ovary and lung. This patient had cancer of the breast. In 1954 Cogan first used the term "ocular flutter" to d...Image/MovingImage
96 Bilateral Sixth Nerve PalsyThis patient was known to be a chronic alcoholic. He presented with acute onset of unsteadiness walking which he attributed to double vision. He was unable to give an accurate history and was disoriented for time and place. Neurological examination: Significant for impaired memory and cognitive ...Image/MovingImage
97 Spastic Cerebellar Ataxia of Charlevoix-SaguenayThe patient is a 19 year old high school student who carried the diagnosis of autosomal recessive spastic cerebellar ataxia of Charlevoix-Saguenay. He was born at term, walked at 9 months and developed well with normal milestones. At age 10 he began to have difficulty speaking, occasional involuntar...Image/MovingImage
98 Upbeat NystagmusThe patient is a 50 year old woman who presented in November 1977 with a transient facial droop, nystagmus, diplopia, dysarthria and vertigo. She was admitted to New England Tufts Medical Center and had an extensive workup including an electroencephalogram, first generation CT brain scan, angiogram ...Image/MovingImage
99 Familial Myasthenia GravisIn 1999 Dr. A. G. Engel published a monograph on Myasthenia Gravis and Myasthenic Disorders with a chapter devoted to Congenital Myasthenic Syndromes. Dr. Engel systematically defined and classified hereditary and congenital myasthenic syndromes, delineated on the basis of their electrophysiologi...Image/MovingImage
100 Lid LagThe classical eye signs of thyroid associated ophthalmopathy (TAO) of Graves' Disease is illustrated by case ID925-4. This 50 year old woman with TAO is included in the collection because she illustrates very well lid lag (persistent elevation of the upper eyelid in downgaze) - von Graefe sign E...Image/MovingImage
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