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51 Congenital Horizontal Gaze PalsyThe patient is an 8 year old boy with a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by congenital absence of conjugate horizontal eye movements preservation of vertical gaze and convergence and progressive scoliosis (HGPPS) developing in childhood. The child was referred to Dr. Cogan with a ...Image/MovingImage
52 PalinopsiaThe patient is a healthy 59 year old woman who presented in 1978 with transiet visual symptoms. The first visual disturbance occurred in December 1978 when suddenly she noted: • Fluttering of vision in the left eye (OS) • The appearance of a central black spot • Around the edge of the blac...Image/MovingImage
53 Familial NystagmusThe mother and her infant son both have conjugate horizontal pendular nysagmus. Diagnosis: Congenital sensory nystagmus Familial Infantile Nystagmus Syndrome (INS) The little boy is a bright active child with normal development. He has pendular nystagmus in central gaze without a head turn or h...Image/MovingImage
54 Pendular Vertical OscillationsThis 60 year old patient presented in 1979 for evaluation of blurred vision watching television and a sense of unsteadiness when walking down stairs. Past History: Hypertension for years A "small stroke" 3 months prior to this evaluation, presenting acutely with dizziness and vertical double vision....Image/MovingImage
55 Bilateral PtosisThe patient is a 65 year old physician who presented with intermittent drooping of his eyelids, particularly at the end of the day. He found that if he gently closed his eyes when he came to a stop in his car at a set of traffic lights, his eyelids opened more fully. He subsequently developed inte...Image/MovingImage
56 Fisher's One and a Half SyndromeThis young man was seen in the emergency room of his local hospital following the onset of severe headache, mild confusion and diplopia. Non-contrast CT brain scan showed: A right pontine hemorrhage He was transferred to the Massachusetts General Hospital ICU. Ocular Motility: Esotropia of the r...Image/MovingImage
57 Third Nerve PalsyThis patient is a 58 year old woman from Peru who, in 1975, developed intermittent headaches and right retro-orbital eye pain. She was seen by several ophthalmologists in South America who were unable to make a diagnosis. In March 1977 she awoke one morning with vertical diplopia most marked on...Image/MovingImage
58 Jaw WinkingThis young boy was born at full term after a normal pregnancy with congenital unilateral ptosis of the left eyelid. His mother noticed that when he was sucking on a bottle the ptotic eyelid opened and closed. A diagnosis of the Marcus-Gunn jaw winking phenomenon was made. The first case of thi...Image/MovingImage
59 Titubation OpsoclonusThis 52 year old woman presented with unsteady gait. She was admitted to an outside hospital where a diagnosis was made. 1. Paraneoplastic opsoclonus 2. Paraneoplastic cerebellar syndrome with bilateral limb and gait ataxia and titubation 3. Adenocarcinoma of the breast She was transferred to the M...Image/MovingImage
60 Third Nerve PalsyThe patient is an 85 year old man with hypertension and Type II diabetes mellitus. He presented with a ten day history of drooping of the left eye, unaccompanied by eye pain or headache. With the lid elevated he had double vision in all directions of gaze. He came to the Massachusetts General Ho...Image/MovingImage
61 Ataxic GaitThe patient is a 72 year old woman who presented with a 4 year history of progressive difficulty with balance, frequent falls and unsteadiness walking. She required a cane to steady herself. Past History: Significant for alcohol abuse. In 1980, she came to Boston for a second opinion and was seen...Image/MovingImage
62 Pendular Nystagmus; Horizontal Gaze PalsyThe patient is a 29 year old retarded man with a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by congenital absence of conjugate horizontal eye movements, preservation of vertical gaze and convergence and horizontal pendular nystagmus. Ocular motility examination: Conjugate horizontal pendular n...Image/MovingImage
63 Elliptical NystagmusThe patient carries a diagnosis of multiple sclerosis.Image/MovingImage
64 Bilateral Sixth Nerve PalsyThis patient has CNS B-cell lymphoma involving the dura mater. She presented with a chief complaint of "double vision and a squint is his right eye". On examination she was found to have bilateral sixth nerve palsy and paralytic esotropia. Comment: Lymphoma involving the dura is uncommon. Most p...Image/MovingImage
65 Spasm of the Near ReflexThis 17 year old boy presented with episodic eye pain. He consulted an ophthalmologist for evaluation of his symptoms and also complained of periodic difficulty focusing. On examination he had periodic spasms of abnormal eye movements, with impairment of full abduction. His ophthalmologist cons...Image/MovingImage
66 LateropulsionThis 44 year old woman has a diagnosis of Multiple Sclerosis.Image/MovingImage
67 Familial Myasthenia GravisIn 1999 Dr. A. G. Engel published a monograph on Myasthenia Gravis and Myasthenic Disorders with a chapter devoted to Congenital Myasthenic Syndromes. Dr. Engel systematically defined and classified hereditary and congenital myasthenic syndromes, delineated on the basis of their electrophysiologi...Image/MovingImage
68 Unilateral Internuclear OphthalmoplegiaThe patient is a 19 year old sophomore who presented in 1983 with numbness of the left hand, involving initially just the fingers, and numbness and weakness of the right side of the face. He described the numbness in his hand as if it was "intensely asleep". The facial numbness involved the peri...Image/MovingImage
69 Downbeat NystagmusThis patient carries a diagnosis of Type I Chiari malformation. In 1983 she presented with vertical double vision which persisted. Two months later, she had an acute episode of irritation of her eyes possibly due to allergy, followed two days later by difficulty in focusing, light headedness, a ...Image/MovingImage
70 Bilateral PtosisPatient is a 65 year old woman who presented with acute onset of bilateral ptosis. She awoke one day and found her eyelids half shut and she was unable to see. The lids completely shut and she came to the Massachusetts General Hospital Emergency Room and was admitted. Past History: Negative for pt...Image/MovingImage
71 Unilateral Horizontal Gaze PalsyThis 56 year old woman with known adenocarcinoma of the breast presented with the recent onset of horizontal diplopia and deviation of her left eye inwards. Her oncologist referred her for a neuro-ophthalmic evaluation. This 56 year old woman with known adenocarcinoma of the breast presented with...Image/MovingImage
72 Downbeat NystagmusIn 1984, this young woman was involved in a motor vehicle accident when her car was hit from behind. She struck her head on the dash board but had no loss of consciousness. She was able to get out of the car unaided and was immediately aware of pain in her neck. She thought that she had susta...Image/MovingImage
73 Normal Eye MovementsThe video of the normal eye movement examination was made with the assistance of Dr. Terrence Millette, a neurologist and former Fellow with me in 1985-1986. Introduction to the Saccadic System Saccades are fast eye movements that bring the image of an object of interest onto the fovea. They c...Image/MovingImage
74 Supranuclear Paralysis of UpgazeThe patient is a 33 year old man who called the police to his apartment at 3 a.m. on the morning of admission. They found his apartment in a state of disarray and realized that he had been down on the floor for some hours and only just able to open the door to let them in. He was admitted to the l...Image/MovingImage
75 Unilateral PtosisThis patient is a 46 year old man who carried a diagnosis of late onset diabetes mellitus and hypertension. In October 1985, five weeks prior to admission, he developed vertical diplopia while playing golf. Drooping of the left upper lid (ptosis) developed a few days later and closed the eye. Th...Image/MovingImage
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