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51 Basal Ganglia: Neuroanatomy Video Lab - Brain DissectionsSuzanne S. Stensaas, PhD, Professor Emeritus, Department of Neurobiology and Anatomy School of Medicine, University of UtahStructures involved in involuntary movements are shown on models, in animations, and on gross coronal and axial sections. Diagrams show the cortex-to-cortex loop and the nigrostriatal pathway. The direct and indirect pathways are shown. The direct pathway facilitates movement while the indirect path...
52 Comparison of the Motor Systems: Neuroanatomy Video Lab - Brain DissectionsSuzanne S. Stensaas, PhD, Professor Emeritus, Department of Neurobiology and Anatomy School of Medicine, University of UtahA comparison of the three major motor systems focuses on categorizing motor problems as corticospinal tract, cerebellar, or basal ganglia. It begins with 12 minutes of gross anatomical structures and pathway review followed by clinical video clips demonstrating clinical features of disease of each o...
53 Hypothalamus: Neuroanatomy Video Lab - Brain DissectionsSuzanne S. Stensaas, PhD, Professor Emeritus, Department of Neurobiology and Anatomy School of Medicine, University of UtahGross specimens are used to demonstrate the area of the hypothalamus and its relationship to surrounding structures. Both endocrine and autonomic functions are explored using diagrams. Mention is made of the direct hypothalamic response to circulating hormones and other substances such as sodium. Th...
54 Olfactory System: Neuroanatomy Video Lab - Brain DissectionsSuzanne S. Stensaas, PhD, Professor Emeritus, Department of Neurobiology and Anatomy School of Medicine, University of UtahBeginning with the location of the sensory cells within the skull the axons are traced into the cranial cavity. Demonstration of the olfactory bulb, olfactory tract and it termination in the forebrain and temporal lobe are indicated. Trauma and meningiomas can produce loss of small (anosmia). Degene...
55 Limbic System: Neuroanatomy Video Lab - Brain DissectionsSuzanne S. Stensaas, PhD, Professor Emeritus, Department of Neurobiology and Anatomy School of Medicine, University of UtahThe decision was made to present a simplified description of a much more complex system using animations to construct a 3D image. Papez circuit is shown on gross specimens with mention of its involvement in memory. The role of the amygdala in fear and the olfactory cortex in temporal lobe epilepsy a...
56 The Visual Pathway: Neuroanatomy Video Lab - Brain DissectionsSuzanne S. Stensaas, PhD, Professor Emeritus, Department of Neurobiology and Anatomy School of Medicine, University of UtahA brief review of the anatomy of the eye and the photic stimulation of the receptors is followed by a gross exploration of the visual pathway from the optic nerve, chiasm, and tract to the thalamus stressing how the left part of the visual world reaches the right hemisphere. Visual fields are relate...
57 Introduction: Neuroanatomy Video Lab - Brain DissectionsSuzanne S. Stensaas, PhD, Professor Emeritus, Department of Neurobiology and Anatomy School of Medicine, University of UtahThe regions and lobes of the brain are identified along with some of the nerves and vessels. The basic functions of the cortex of each lobe are introduced along with principal sulci and gyri. The importance of the left hemisphere for language and the temporal lobe in memory are mentioned along with ...
58 The Normal Unfixed Brain: Neuroanatomy Video Lab - Brain DissectionsSuzanne S. Stensaas, PhD, Professor Emeritus, Department of Neurobiology and Anatomy School of Medicine, University of UtahThe consistency and vulnerability of the brain is demonstrated along with the clear and glistening pia and arachnoid and the tough dura. The cushioning function of the CSF is stressed and the features are pointed out on the ventral surface. The uncus and temporal lobes are normal with arteries free ...
59 Orientation: The Planes of the Brain: Neuroanatomy Video Lab - Brain DissectionsSuzanne S. Stensaas, PhD, Professor Emeritus, Department of Neurobiology and Anatomy School of Medicine, University of UtahTerms such as anterior, posterior, inferior and superior are introduced with respect to the hemispheres as well as the brain stem. Terms such as rostral and caudal or dorsal and ventral can mean different things in different areas. Sections in three planes (frontal, axial, and sagittal) are demonstr...
60 The Meninges: Neuroanatomy Video Lab - Brain DissectionsSuzanne S. Stensaas, PhD, Professor Emeritus, Department of Neurobiology and Anatomy School of Medicine, University of UtahThe epidural, subdural and subarachnoid spaces are demonstrated and discussed with respect to trauma and disease. The relationship of the brainstem and cerebellum to the tentorium demonstrates the vulnerability of the brain stem to increased supratentorial pressure and herniation. Arachnoid granulat...
61 The Ventricles: Neuroanatomy Video Lab - Brain DissectionsSuzanne S. Stensaas, PhD, Professor Emeritus, Department of Neurobiology and Anatomy School of Medicine, University of UtahThe ventricles are demonstrated and named on a model cast as well as in rotating 3D reconstructions. The production, function, circulation and removal of CSF produced by the choroid plexus is discussed using a diagram and then reviewed on frontal, axial and sagittal brain specimens and corresponding...
62 Cranial Nerves: Neuroanatomy Video Lab - Brain DissectionsSuzanne S. Stensaas, PhD, Professor Emeritus, Department of Neurobiology and Anatomy School of Medicine, University of UtahThe approach is to learn to associate the cranial nerves with their brainstem level and blood supply. Emphasis is given to the midbrain (3, 4), pons (5, 6, 7, 8), medulla (9, 10, 11, 12) and their most important functions.
63 Brain Stem & Reflexes: Neuroanatomy Video Lab - Brain DissectionsSuzanne S. Stensaas, PhD, Professor Emeritus, Department of Neurobiology and Anatomy School of Medicine, University of UtahThe cranial nerves are reviewed again on a specimen with vessels. Next, landmarks on gross brain stem sections are shown. Stressed are the three reflexes associated with each of the three levels: pupillary, corneal and gag reflexes and their associated cranial nerves. Finally cross sections of myeli...
64 Cerebral Circulation: Neuroanatomy Video Lab - Brain DissectionsSuzanne S. Stensaas, PhD, Professor Emeritus, Department of Neurobiology and Anatomy School of Medicine, University of UtahThe major vessels of the anterior and posterior circulation are demonstrated along with the Circle of Willis on both a model and in an animation. The distribution of the three major cerebral arteries is demonstrated along with the concept of a watershed zone. A gross specimen with good vessels is al...
65 Cortical Localization: Neuroanatomy Video Lab - Brain DissectionsSuzanne S. Stensaas, PhD, Professor Emeritus, Department of Neurobiology and Anatomy School of Medicine, University of UtahThe lobes of the brain are defined together with their major functions. The visual field representation in the occipital lobe is explained with a diagram. Speech areas and the major types of aphasia are discussed in the dominant hemisphere and parietal lesions of neglect and spatial orientation are ...
66 Sensation from the Face: Neuroanatomy Video Lab - Brain DissectionsSuzanne S. Stensaas, PhD, Professor Emeritus, Department of Neurobiology and Anatomy School of Medicine, University of UtahSensation from the face travels in one of two pathways both of which eventually converge to form the trigeminothalamic tract that reaches the thalamus. The tract that carries pain and temperature is confusing because it first descends before crossing while the equivalent of Dorsal Column-Medical Lem...
67 Control of the Pupil: Neuroanatomy Video Lab - Brain DissectionsSuzanne S. Stensaas, PhD, Professor Emeritus, Department of Neurobiology and Anatomy School of Medicine, University of UtahThrough diagrams, animations and gross specimens the constriction and dilation of the pupil by the autonomic nervous system are described. Both the parasympathetic and sympathetic control are traced and the importance of a constricted pupil, Horner's Syndrome, and temporal lobe (uncal) herniation (d...
68 Bilateral acquired Brown's syndromeRyan D. Walsh, MDDepartment of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, The Eye Institute, Medical College of Wisconsin; Department of Neurology, Medical College of Wisconsin; Collin McClelland, MDDepartments of Ophthalmology and Visual Neurosciences. University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota.A 27 year old female with a history of Sjogren's syndrome reported a 2 year history of a vertical binocular diplopia with looking up-and-to-the right. She has also noticed an audible "click" when positioning her eyes in this direction. As depicted in the video, when attempting to look up-and-to-the...
69 Apraxia of Eyelid OpeningRaed Behbehani, MD, Al-Bahar Ophthalmology Center, Kuwait City, KuwaitPatient has Parkinson disease and has developed this condition following deep brain stimulation.
70 Cogan's Lid Twitch SignRaed Behbehani, MD, Al-Bahar Ophthalmology Center, Kuwait City, KuwaitCogan's lid twitch sign is a twitch sign of he upper lid upon looking straight from a sustained downgaze position. It is associated with Ocular Myasthenia Gavis.
71 Congenital Oculomotor ApraxiaRaed Behbehani, MD, Al-Bahar Ophthalmology Center, Kuwait City, KuwaitCongenital Ocular Motor Apraxia is an uncommon condition that causes children to have difficulty moving their eyes horizontally or from side to side. They are usually unable to quickly move their eyes from side to side and often have to turn their head (head jerking) and not just their eyes to track...
72 Parinaud SyndromeRaed Behbehani, MD, Al-Bahar Ophthalmology Center, Kuwait City, KuwaitParinaud syndrome, as called dorsal midbrain syndrome, is due to dorsal midbrain lesions from compression (e.g., a tumor), demyelination, or ischemia. The syndrome is characterized by limitation of upward gaze, convergence retraction nystagmus, light near dissociation, and lid retraction (Collier's ...
73 Downbeat Nystagmus Anti-GAD Cerebellar SyndromeRaed Behbehani, MD, Al-Bahar Ophthalmology Center, Kuwait City, KuwaitA patient with Anti-GAD positive Cerebellar syndrome with ataxia and opsoclonus due to downbeat nystagmus , treated with Baclofen with some improvement.
74 Marcus Gun Jaw WinkingRaed Behbehani, MD, Al-Bahar Ophthalmology Center, Kuwait City, KuwaitMarcus Gunn Jaw Wink causes congenital ptosis and eyelid retraction associated with jaw movement or sucking. It's due to "miswiring" between 3rd and 5th cranial nerves. The treatment of ptosis in children is surgery to prevent amblyopia .
75 Ocular NeuromyotoniaRaed Behbehani, MD, Al-Bahar Ophthalmology Center, Kuwait City, KuwaitOcular Neuromytonia is a characterised by by paroxysmal tonic contraction of the extraocular muscles supplied by the oculomotor nerve. It is has been reported after cranial radiation therapy, especially to the sellar-parasellar region and from compressive lesions such tumours or aneurysms. The patho...
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