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26 Saccadic Pathways in the Brainstem and Cerebellum & Mechanism for Saccadic Dysmetria in Wallenberg Syndrome - Abnormal Function of the Brainstem/Cerebellar Saccadic Pathways with a Left Wallenberg SyndromeThe end result of a lesion involving the climbing fibers within the left lateral medulla is deficient rightward saccades (contralesional hypometric saccades), and over-active leftward saccades (ipsilesional hypermetric saccades), and ipsilesional ocular lateropulsion given this baseline imbalance. M...Medulla OMS; Normal Saccades; Abnormal Saccades; Figures
27 Saccadic Pathways in the Brainstem and Cerebellum & Mechanism for Saccadic Dysmetria in Wallenberg Syndrome - Normal Function of the Brainstem/Cerebellar Saccadic PathwaysThe inferior cerebellar peduncle (ICP) carries climbing fibers to the dorsal vermis, and these fibers have an inhibitory influence over the Purkinje cells. These Purkinje cells normally inhibit the ipsilateral fastigial nucleus, and the fastigial nucleus projects to the contralateral inhibitory burs...Medulla OMS; Normal Saccades; Abnormal Saccades; Figures
28 Saccadic dysmetria and ocular lateropulsion in lateral medullary strokeThis is a 30-yo-man who suffered a right lateral medullary stroke. Examination showed saccadic hypermetria to the right (ipsilesional), hypometria to the left (contralesional)and rightward ocular lateropulsion (ipsilesional), common ocular motor features of the lateral medullary syndrome. Saccadic h...Lateral medullary syndrome, Wallenberg Syndrome, Saccadic dysmetria, Ocular lateropulsion, Saccades
29 Slow Saccades Due to Unilateral Paramedian Pontine Reticular Formation (PPRF) Injury with Preserved Movements Using the Vestibulo-Ocular ReflexThis is a 60-year-old man who presented for imbalance and oscillopsia 10 months after surgery and 8 months after radiation for Merkel cell carcinoma of the neck. He developed imbalance after surgery and diplopia and oscillopsia 6 months prior to our evaluation. MRI showed enhancement of both 6th n...Abnormal Saccades; Pons OMS; Sixth Abducens Nerve; Abnormal VOR; Vestibulocochlear Nerve; Horizontal Gaze Palsy
30 Slow Volitional Saccades and Poor Fast Phases to an Optokinetic Stimulus, with Preserved Head Impulse TestingThis is a 67-year-old woman presenting with imbalance and binocular horizontal diplopia at near. On examination there were frequent square wave jerks, limited supraduction OU and convergence insufficiency, which explained her diplopia. Pursuit and suppression of the vestibulo-ocular reflex were sa...Abnormal Saccades; VOR HIT Normal
31 Slow abducting saccade in 6th nerve palsy40-yo-man with a right fascicular 6th nerve palsy due to stroke. There was improvement and only a minimal residual right abduction paresis OD by this visit, but still a relatively slow right abducting saccade seen in the video, especially apparent in the slow motion segment. Video shows slow abduct...Sixth (Abducens) Nerve Palsy; Abnormal Saccades
32 Square Wave Jerks and Macrosaccadic Oscillations in a Patient with a Cerebellar TumorThis is a 40-year-old man who developed severe headaches, confusion, and gait imbalance which led to neuroimaging which demonstrated a midline cerebellar mass with compression of the fourth ventricle and obstructive hydrocephalus. He underwent a suboccipital craniectomy for resection of the mass, an...Abnormal Saccades; Square Wave Jerks
33 Test Your Knowledge - OscillopsiaThis 65-year-old man with multiple sclerosis described that objects in front of him appear to spontaneously jump or move horizontally for the last few months. He reported that his symptoms occur independent of head movements and head impulse testing was normal. After viewing the video, what is the m...Pendular Nystagmus; Jerk Nystagmus; Abducting Nystagmus; Internuclear Ophthalmoplegia
34 Test Your Knowledge - Vertical Saccadic Palsy Due to Bilateral riMLF InfarctionsThis is a 30-year-old who was found minimally responsive on the lounge floor of an ice skating rink. He was brought to the ED, where he had a GCS score of 8 (where 15 is normal) for poor responsiveness. His ocular motor exam is shown in the video. Regarding Finding #1, which of the following is fals...Abnormal Saccades; Normal Optokinetic; Abnormal Range; Vertical Gaze Palsy; Upgaze Palsy; Downgaze Palsy; Mesencephalon; Ocular Motor
35 Test Your Knowledge - Vertical-Torsional NystagmusQuestion #1: Watch the first portion of the video until you are told to stop. Is this vestibular nystagmus more likely to be peripheral or central? A. Peripheral B. Central Answer for #1: A. Incorrect. While the patient has upbeat-torsional (top poles beating toward the right ear) nystagmus which is...Jerk Nystagmus; Rotary Nystagmus; Upbeat Nystagmus; INO; Skew; Abnormal Alignment; Abnormal Saccades; Vestibular Nystagmus; Acute Vestibular Syndrome
36 The acute vestibular syndrome with dysarthria, dysphagia, dysphonia, hemi-ataxia, and saccadic dysmetria due to the lateral medullary (Wallenberg) syndromeThis is a 50-year-old woman with the acute onset of vertigo, dysarthria, dysphagia and dysphonia/hoarseness (nucleus ambiguus), ptosis and imbalance. Her examination localized to a left lateral medullary (Wallenberg) syndrome - there was decreased sensation on the left side of the face (spinal trige...Acute Vestibular Syndrome, Ninth Nerve, OMS Medulla, Abnormal Saccades, Tenth Nerve, Lateropulsion, Horner Syndrome
37 Two patients with Parinaud's syndrome with slow upward saccades and normal upward range of movementsPresented here are two patients with Parinaud's syndrome: Patient 1) suffered a hemorrhage of the dorsal midbrain causing slow upward saccades (with convergence retraction nystagmus, but normal vertical range of eye movements), and light-near dissociation, and Patient 2) had a germinoma of the dorsa...Abnormal Saccades, Dorsal Midbrain, Jerk Nystagmus, Gaze Evoked Nystagmus
38 Unidirectional nystagmus in lateral medullary syndromeThis is a 70-yo-man who presented with acute vertigo. Examination demonstrated very mild spontaneous torsional nystagmus (towards the right ear) in primary (not seen well in this video), with robust downbeat-torsional (towards right ear) nystagmus in right gaze and (less robust) almost pure torsiona...Medula, Rotary Nystagmus, Jerk Nystagmus, Acute Vestibula, Vestibular Nystagmus, Abnormal Saccades
39 Wall-eyed bilateral INO in caudal midbrain lesionThis is a 30-yo-woman with the relatively acute onset of diplopia. There was a large angle exotropia, very subtle lag of the adducting saccades OD>OS, suggestive of bilateral INOs. This was best seen with rapid horizontal saccades, and a lesion involving bilateral MLFs in the caudal midbrain was dem...INO, Abnormal Saccades, Jerk Nystagmus, Gaze Evoked Nystagmus
40 riMLF Syndrome from Artery of Percheron StrokeThis is a 65-yo-man who suffered the abrupt onset of loss of consciousness followed by difficulty looking down. MRI showed bilateral rostral midbrain strokes in the distribution of the artery of Percheron. He could not initiate downward saccades and had fair upward saccades. However, downward vestib...Saccades abnormal; Vestibulo-ocular reflex and head impulse testing normal; Pursuit normal; Vertical gaze palsy; Downgaze palsy; Mesencephalon
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