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TitleDescriptionSubject
26 Central (Nuclear) 3rd Nerve PalsiesShown here are two patients with left sided midbrain pathology (hemorrhage and ischemia) which caused damage to the 3rd nucleus. Both of the patients have ipsilateral mydriasis, adduction, supra- and infraduction paresis. Ipsilateral>contralateral ptosis is also present, and localizes to the central...Range of eye movements/motility abnormal; Third nuclear; Upgaze palsy; Downgaze palsy; Mesencephalon; Jerk nystagmus; Rotary nystagmus
27 Central 4th nerve palsy with contralateral Horner's syndromeThis is a 60-yo-woman who presented with a complaint of diplopia. Examination demonstrated a left hypertropia that worsened in right and down gaze as well as in left head tilt, and a left 4th nerve palsy was diagnosed. There was also evidence of a mild motility deficit in down/medial gaze OS, consis...Horner's, Fourth nerve palsy, Mesencephalon
28 Central Acute Vestibular Syndrome due to posterior fossa hemorrhageThis is a patient presenting with the acute vestibular syndrome (AVS, e.g., acute prolonged vertigo, spontaneous nystagmus) whose HINTS (Head Impulse, Nystagmus, Test of Skew) testing indicated a central etiology based on negative (normal) head impulse testing (HIT). Nystagmus was unidirectional and...VOR HIT, Alignment, Jerk Nystagmus, Vestibular Nystagmus, Acute Vestibular
29 Central HINTS (with an abnormal head impulse sign) in the acute vestibular syndrome due to lateral pontine/middle cerebellar peduncle demyelinationThis is a 30-year-old man presenting with vertigo, diplopia and mild left facial weakness (not seen in the video). On exam, there was right-beating nystagmus (RBN) in primary gaze that increased in right gaze (in accordance with Alexander's law), and the RBN stayed unidirectional, but lessened, in l...Abnormal Alignment, Vestibulocochlear, OMS Pons, Rotary Nystagmus, Vestibular Nystagmus, Acute Vestibular Nystagmus, Jerk Nystagmus, VOR HIT Abnormal
30 Central anatomy of the IIIrd nerveSeen here is an axial section of the midbrain at the level of the superior colliculus. The paired nuclei are located ventral to the periaqueductal grey, and the midline central caudal nucleus (CCN) is located between the right and left nuclei. The CCN sends projections to bilateral levator palpebrae...Mesencephalon, Figures, Third Nerve Palsy
31 Central anatomy of the IVth nerveThe IVth or trochlear nucleus is located ventral to the central periaqueductal grey matter, dorsal to the medial longitudinal fasciculus (MLF) and medial to the oculosympathetic tract at the level of the inferior colliculus. The fascicles of the IVth nerve travel dorsally and caudally around the cen...Figures; Mesencephalon OMS
32 Central positional vertigo and nystagmus in a posterior fossa tumorThis is a 30-year old woman who presented with positional vertigo and vomiting following a concussion related to a car accident 3 months prior. She was initially diagnosed with posterior canal (PC) benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV), although there was no improvement with Epley maneuvers. T...Vestibular Nystagmus, Jerk Nystagmus, Gaze-Evoked Nystagmus, Central Positional Nystagmus, Cerebellar OMS, Downbeat Nystagmus, Upbeat Nystagmus
33 Cerebellar Ataxia, Neuropathy, & Vestibular Areflexia Syndrome (CANVAS): Impaired visually-enhanced VOR and abnormal head impulse testingA 67 year old woman presented with 1 year of progressive numbness, gait instability, and oscillopsia when walking or with head movements. Examination showed excessive square-wave jerks, bilateral horizontal gaze-evoked nystagmus, impairment of the visually-enhanced vestibular ocular reflex (vVOR - s...VOR Abnormal, HIT Abnormal, Jerk Nystagmus, Gaze Evoked Nystagmus, Square Wave Jerks
34 Cerebellar degeneration with downbeat nystagmus provoked by convergenceDescription: This is a 70-yo-woman with a progressive gait disorder, diagnosed with cerebellar ataxia. She displayed typical cerebellar ocular motor signs including gaze-evoked nystagmus, choppy pursuit and VOR suppression, and there was very subtle spontaneous downbeat nystagmus, best appreciated w...Convergence Abnormal, Cerebellar pathology, Jerk nystagmus, Downbeat nystagmus
35 Cerebellar eye signs in SCA8This is a 30-yo-man with a diagnosis of SCA 8 who had appendicular and gait ataxia in addition to choppy smooth pursuit and VORS, downbeat nystagmus, saccadic hypermetria, and gaze-evoked nystagmus with rebound nystagmus. He also had an esotropia worse at distance, which is commonly found with cereb...Saccadic dysmetria; Downbeat nystagmus; Gaze-evoked nystagmus; Vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) supression; Saccades
36 Chiari malformation causing downbeat nystagmus in lateral gazeThis is a 20-yo-man who presented with oscillopsia in lateral gaze from downbeat nystagmus (DBN). In primary gaze, very subtle DBN was only noted with ophthalmoscopy, but in lateral gaze, prominent DBN was present. Other central ocular motor signs included gaze-evoked nystagmus (GEN) vertically, in ...Jerk Nystagmus, Gaze Evoked Nystagmus, Downbeat Nystagmus
37 Chronic progressive external ophthalmoplegia (CPEO) and cerebellar signsThis is a 60-yo-woman who initially presented with imbalance and ophthalmoparesis. Initially, there was mild horizontal gaze limitation with mild gaze-evoked nystagmus and slow saccades, and over the years, gait ataxia and dysarthria (mainly a scanning quality to her speech) developed, and her ophth...Abnormal Saccades, Abnormal Range, Horizontal Gaze Palsy, Gaze Evoked Nystagmus
38 Complete microvascular 6th nerve palsy with slow abducting saccadeThis is a 90-year-man with HTN, HLD, DM who woke up with horizontal diplopia. Two years prior, he was diagnosed with a microvascular right 6th nerve palsy that resolved over several months. There was little concern for giant cell arteritis, myasthenia gravis, or a mass lesion in the absence of typic...Sixth Nerve
39 Complete peripheral vestibulopathy & ipsilateral facial palsy60-yo-man who suffered the fairly abrupt onset (over hours) of right lower motor neuron facial nerve palsy (7th cranial nerve), vertigo and deafness in the right ear (8th cranial nerve). Vesicles were noted on otoscopy, and herpes zoster infection (Ramsay Hunt) was diagnosed. Whereas many cases of "...Ramsay Hunt; Facial nerve palsy; Vestibulocochlear nerve palsy; Vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR)
40 Congenital nystagmusPresented here are two patients with congenital nystagmus demonstrating characteristic features including: mixed pendular and jerk nystagmus (usually gaze-evoked) waveforms, stays horizontal even in vertical gaze, suppression with convergence, strabismus and a latent component (common but not always...Jerk Nystagmus, Pendular Nystagmus, Latent Nystagmus, Congenital Acquired Nystagmus
41 ConvergenceCan bring out or change the direction of vertical nystagmus in Wernicke's, or cerebellar disease; may be impaired in Parkinson's disease, head trauma, elderly patients; may overcome an adduction deficit with an INO. Instructional ocular motor examination procedures.Convergence; Exam; Abnormal Saccades
42 Convergence insufficiency and square wave jerks in PSPThis is a 70-yo-woman with progressive supranuclear palsy with complaints of difficulty reading. Her husband noticed that she would frequently close one eye when attempting to read, and words were not clear on the page, and this would in fact improve by covering one eye. On her exam, she had a 1 pri...Convergence, Alignment, Convergence Insufficiency, Square Wave Jerks
43 Coronal section of the brainstem showing ocular motor nuclei and anatomy of the vestibular nucleus (with SCC inputs)(A) Seen here is a coronal view of the brainstem showing the locations of the ocular motor nuclei (IIIrd, IVth, VIth) as well as the nuclei of VII and VIII (vestibular and cochlear). The vestibular nucleus (VN) is divided into the inferior, lateral, medial, and superior subnuclei, and the medial ves...Pons, Medullar OMS, Mesencephalon OMS, figures
44 Demonstration of HINTS examination in a normal subjectIn the acute vestibular syndrome - consisting of acute prolonged vertigo, spontaneous nystagmus, imbalance, nausea/vomiting, head motion intolerance which is typically due to vestibular neuritis or posterior fossa stroke - a 3 step test of ocular motor and vestibular function known as HINTS, has hig...Acute Vestibular; Normal VOR; Vertigo; HINTS examination
45 Divergence insufficiency in cerebellar ataxiaThis is a 65-yo woman with complaints of imbalance (progressive over years) and horizontal diplopia at distance. On her exam, there was a small symptomatic esotropia at distance, but only a small esophoria at near. There were no obvious abduction deficits, and the 6 prism diopter ET at distance was...Abnormal Alignment, Divergence Insufficiency, OMS Cerebellar
46 Dix-Hallpike maneuver in posterior BPPV with reversal of nystagmus on sitting upThis is a patient with typical posterior canal (PC) benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV), which is provoked by the Dix-Hallpike maneuver. When the patient is moved into the right Dix-Hallpike maneuver, after a brief latency, upbeat-torsional (towards the lowermost or affected [right] ear) nys...BPPV Posterior, BPPV Diagnosis, Jerk Nystagmus, Vestibular Nystagmus
47 Downbeat (perverted) head shaking nystagmus in a patient with spontaneous torsional nystagmusThis is a 75-year-old woman with vascular risk factors who experienced abrupt onset imbalance and dizziness. Symptoms were maximal at onset, and she denied progression over 6 months. Clinically, it was felt that she had suffered a stroke, although an MRI one months later demonstrated an unremarkable...Torsional Nystagmus; Jerk Nystagmus; Headshaking; Downbeat Nystagmus; Cerebellar Pathology
48 Downbeat nystagmusThis is a 40-year-old man with 2 years of progressive ataxia and oscillopsia. On examination, he had downbeat nystagmus (DBN), an ocular motor finding that is usually (but not always) associated with flocculus/paraflocculus dysfunction, which causes overaction of the anterior canal (upward or anti-g...Downbeat Nystagmus, OMS Cerebellar, Jerk Nystagmus, Vestibular Nystagmus
49 Downbeat nystagmus and cerebellar atrophyThis is a 40-year-old man with 2 years of progressive ataxia and oscillopsia. On examination, he had downbeat nystagmus (DBN), an ocular motor finding that is usually (but not always) associated with flocculus/paraflocculus dysfunction, which causes overaction of the anterior canal (upward or anti-g...Downbeat Nystagmus, OMS Cerebellar, Jerk Nystagmus, Vestibular Nystagmus
50 Downbeat nystagmus and convergence spasmThis is a 60-yo-woman with vertical oscillopsia related to her downbeat nystagmus, and diplopia related to an intermittent esotropia. When the esotropia was present, with versions there were bilateral abduction deficits. With ductions and the vestibulo-ocular reflex, it was apparent that the range o...Convergence-abnormal, Range-abnormal, Sixth nerve palsy, Convergence spasm, Cerebellar pathology, Jerk nystagmus, Downbeat nystagmus
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