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26 Hawkes, KristenFood sharing among Ache hunter-gatherers of Eastern ParaguayEmpirical research on food sharing among hunter-gatherers should provide critical data for evaluating both the possible role of food sharing in hominid evolution and the question of how such behavior could be selected.Hunter-gatherers; Ache; Paraguay; Anthropology1988-02
27 Hawkes, KristenSome current ideas about the evolution of the human life historyHuman life history is characterised by a long juvenile period (weaning to reproductive maturity), and a long post-reproductive lifespan in females. How do we explain the differences between our nearest relatives, the great apes, and ourselves? This chapter summarises some recent attempts to use l...Human life history; Fertility; Apes; Juvenile period1999
28 Rogers, Alan R.; Jorde, Lynn B.Genetic structure of the Utah Mormons: comparison of results based on RFLPs, blood groups, migration matrices, isonymy, and pedigreesThe genetic structure of the Utah Mormon population is examined using 25 blood group and 47 RFLP alleles obtained from 442 subjects living in 8 geographic subdivisions. Nei's Gst was 0.013 (p < 0.002) for the RFLP data and 0.012 (p > 0.4) for the blood group data, showing that only 1% of the geneti...1994
29 Cashdan, Elizabeth A.Waist-to hip ratio across cultures: trade-offs between androgen-and estrogen-dependent traitsA gynoid pattern of fat distribution, with small waist and large hips (low waist-to-hip ratio, or WHR) holds significant fitness benefits for women: women with a low WHR of about 0.7 are more fecund, are less prone to chronic disease, and (in most cultures) are considered more attractive. Why, then...Fertility; Optimum; Fecundity2008
30 Harpending, Henry C.J. P. Rushtons theory of ethnic nepotismUnreciprocated aid among co-ethnics and the emotional intensity of ethnic conflict have long been explanatory challenges to evolutionary science. J. P. Rushton's theory of assortative ethnic affiliation-altruism, mating and friendship directed towards fellow ethnics-derives from his more general the...2012-01-01
31 Cashdan, Elizabeth A.Technological change and child behavior among the !KungHow does change in one part of a social system affect other parts? This is the central question that must be answered in order to understand the process through which culture changes. This paper is about a small piece of the problem. It investigates how changes in subsistence economy affect child be...Child behavior; Technological change; Foraging groups; Settled groups1988
32 Hawkes, KristenHuman life histories: primate trade-offs, grandmothering socioecology, and the fossil recordHuman life histories differ from those of other animals in several striking ways. Recently Smith and Tompkins (1995, p. 258) highlighted the combination of "slow" and "fast" features of human lives. Our period of juvenile dependency is unusually long, our age at first reproduction is late, and we h...Meat; Maturity; Life Span2003
33 McElreath, RichardWhen natural selection favors imitation of parentsIt is commonly assumed that parents are important sources of socially learned behavior and beliefs. However, the empirical evidence that parents are cultural models is ambiguous, and debates continue over their importance. A formal theory that examines the evolution of psychological tendencies to i...Transmission; Evolution; Culture2008
34 Wiessner, Pauline W.On network analysis: the potential for understanding (and misunderstanding) !Kung HxaroSchweizer's social network analysis (CA 38: 739-52) of gift giving among the !Kung San (Ju/'hoansi) demonstrates most elegantly how individual strategies, guided by basic cultural rules, coalesce to form a regional system. Complex connections in the network that defied description with simpler anayt...Density of kinship; Nonsymmetry; Ethnohistorica1998-08
35 Hawkes, KristenHunting and the evolution of egalitarian societies: lessons from the HadzaPolitical hierarchies are common in human societies but absent among many mobile hunter-gatherers. So egalitarian social organizations have been attributed to limits that foraging imposes on wealth accumulation. But male-dominance hierarchies characterize all the great apes, our nearest relatives. ...2000
36 Cashdan, Elizabeth A.On territoriality in hunter-gatherersCashdan's intention of using an evolutionary framework to examine cross-cultural variations in territorial defense is admirable, but her argument about the applicability of available models, her own model, and the data used to support it (CA 24:47-66) are all severely flawed. Specifically, Cashdan ...Defense; Organisms; Behavior1983
37 Broughton, JohnCathedral cave fishesTable XLI provides the numbers of identified fish specimens by element from Stratum II at Cathedral Cave. The criteria used to arrive at those identifications are provided in chapter nine. A total of 547 identified fish specimens are represented in this deposit; all of those are sculpin. The mottled...Homestead Cave; Ichthyofauna; Lake Bonneville2000
38 Rogers, Alan R.Pleistocene population X-plosion?In two recent papers, Kaessmann et al. presented DNA sequence data from the X chromosome (Xq13.3) of 30 chimpanzees and 69 humans (Kaessmann et al. 1999a; Kaessmann et al. 1999b). These data bear on two longstanding questions involving late Pleistocene demographic history: (1) whether the long-term...2000
39 Harpending, Henry C.; Rogers, Alan R.Detecting positive selection from genome scans of linkage disequilibriumThough a variety of linkage disequilibrium tests have recently been introduced to measure the signal of recent positive selection, the statistical properties of the various methods have not been directly compared. While most applications of these tests have suggested that positive selection has pl...Genome scans; Linkage disequilibrium; Gene trees2010
40 Rogers, Alan R.Population differences in quantitative characters as opposed to gene frequenciesHypotheses about evolution can be tested by comparing genetics differences with those of quantitative characters. Such comparisons are one source of information concerning the forces that maintain variation among natural populations.Genes; Evolution; Anthropology1986-05
41 Codding, Brian F.Prearchaic Adaptations in the Central Great Basin: Preliminary findings from a stratified open-air site in Grass Valley, NevadaEarly Holocene occupants of the Great Basin preferentially occupied highly productive habitats surrounding pluvial lakes. While growing evidence details in the adaptations of these Prearchaic foragers in the Eastern (e.g., Madsen et al. 2015) and Western Great Basin (e.g., Jenkins et al. 2012), our...Anthropology, Cultural - methods - United States; Anthropology, Cultural - methods - Great Basin; Anthropology - Grass Valley, Nevada2016
42 Hawkes, KristenAlyawara plant use and optimal foraging theoryVarious authors have remarked on the importance of seeds in the pre-European diet of central Australian Aborigines. The Alyawara, an Arandic-speaking group, were typical in this respect. They collected edible seeds from nearly half the eighty-five plant species in their traditional subsistence inven...Australia; Aborigines; Foraging; Seeds1981
43 Broughton, JohnPrehistoric human impacts on California birds: evidence from the Emeryville Shellmound AvifaunaThe abundance of artiodactyls, marine mammals, waterfowl, seabirds, and other animals in 18th- and 19th-century California astonished early explorers, and the incredible wildlife densities reported in their accounts are routinely taken as analogues for the original or pristine zoological condition. ...Avifauna; Prehistoric hunting; Biological evaluation of environmental impacts2004
44 Rogers, Alan R.Sociobiology of sex and sexes (comment)A comment on "Sociobiology of sex and sexes" by Marion Blute.Sociobiology; Sex and sexes1984-04
45 Rogers, Alan R.Evolution of time preference by natural selectionThis paper entertains the hypothesis that human time preferences are in evolutionary equilibrium (i.e. that no mutation changing time preferences could be favored by natural selection). This hypothesis implies that the marginal rate of substitution (MRS) holding Darwinian fitness constant must equal...Capitalism; Econometric models; Equilibrium1994-06
46 O'Rourke, Dennis H.Patterns of genetic variation in native AmericaAllele frequencies from seven polymorphic red cell antigen loci (ABO, Rh, MN, S, P, Duffy, and Diego) were examined in 144 Native American populations. Mean genetic distances (Nei's D) and the fixation index FST are approximately equal for the North and South American samples but are reduced in the...Gene frequencies; Amerinds; Genetic Distance1992
47 Rogers, Alan R.Group selection by selective emigration: the effects of migration and kin structureGroup selection may operate through selective emigration, as Sewall Wright envisioned, as well as through selective extinction. The discrete-generation model of selective emigration developed here yields the following conclusions. 1. The fitness benefit of altruism, "depends on the frequency of altr...Natural selection; Selective extinction; Evolution1990-03
48 O'Rourke, Dennis H.South from Alaska: a pilot aDNA study of genetic history on the Alaska Peninsula and the Eastern AleutiansAbstract The Aleutian Islands were colonized, perhaps several times, from the Alaskan mainland. Earlier work documented transitions in the relative frequencies of mtDNA haplogroups over time, but little is known about potential source populations for prehistoric Aleut migrants. As part of a pilot i...2010
49 Rogers, Alan R.; Harpending, Henry C.Mismatch distributions of mtDNA reveal recent human population expansionsAlthough many genetic studies of human evolution have tried to make distinctions between the replacement and the multiregional evolution hypotheses, current methods and data have not resolved the issue. However, new advances in nucleotide divergence theory can complement these investigations with a ...1994
50 Rogers, Alan R.Genetic variation at the MCIR Locus and the time since loss of human body hairThe melanocortin I receptor (MCIR) locus makes a protein that affects the color of skin and hair. At this locus, amino-acid differences are entirely absent among African humans, abundant among non-Africans (especially Europeans), and abundant in chimpanzee/human comparisons (Rana et al. 1999, Hardin...Nonsynonymous; Chimpanzee; Constraint2004
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