You've searched: Collection: "ehsl_novel_rbd"
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26 Ocular FlutterOcular Flutter, a disorder characterized by intermittent, rapid, horizontal movements in primary position, is demonstrated in this video.Image/MovingImage
27 Internuclear OphthalmoplegiaLesions of the MLF cause an INO, which manifests as ipsilateral palsies of adduction, and nystagmus of the contralateral abducted eye. Vertical gaze is preserved. Inducing optokinetic nystagmus so that the adducting eye is responsible for the fast phase, causes a dissociation between the two eyes, a...Image/MovingImage
28 Chiari Malformation: Eye MovementsThe eye movement disorders commonly accompanying Chiari malformations are listed. These are generally the same as with lesions of the cerebellum.Image/MovingImage
29 Progressive Supranuclear PalsyA patient with PSP demonstrates bilateral hypometric saccades, bilateral low-gain pursuit, vertical gaze palsy, and normal vestibulo- ocular reflexes. A second PSP patient is unable to make saccades or pursue horizontally. With optokinetic stimulation, the eyes move somewhat. Cold caloric stimula...Image/MovingImage
30 Anatomy and Physiology of NystagmusThe role of the cerebellum in modifying the output of the neural integrator is discussed. Impaired integration causes jerk nystagmus with increasing or decreasing velocity exponential slow phases.Image/MovingImage
31 Ocular Myasthenia GravisA man with limited ocular excursions and only small amplitude saccades, improves with Tensilon, this illustrates the need to always consider ocular myasthenia in the differential diagnosis in patients with limited eye movements. Rapid restricted saccades, as this patient demonstrates, are diagnosti...Image/MovingImage
32 Opsoclonus in an InfantAn infant with Infantile Opsoclonus-Myoclonus ("Dancing Eyes, Dancing Feet"), with a likely underlying neuroblastoma is shown and the differential diagnosis of opsoclonus in infants and children is listed.Image/MovingImage
33 Superior Oblique MyokymiaThis eye movement abnormality presents with intermittent monocular oscillopsia, often following a particular eye movement or head tilt. The examiner will often miss the abnormality unless it can be provoked. It represents a microtremor of a superior oblique muscle and usually responds to an anticon...Image/MovingImage
34 Whipples Mimicking PSPA patient is shown with nuchal dystonic ridigity, profound retropulsion, limited range of horizontal saccades, an almost complete vertical gaze palsy, normal vestibulo-ocular eye movements, and apraxia of eyelid opening. His pendular convergence nystagmus was the clue that he had CNS Whipple's Dise...Image/MovingImage
35 Vertical Gaze ParalysisA patient is shown with up, down, and leftward gaze palsies as a result of a presumed right-sided high midbrain lesion. (He was encountered prior to the introduction of CT scanning, so that localization could not be verified). He had normal vestibulo-ocular reflexes. In addition, he had a curious ...Image/MovingImage
36 Alexander's LawThis describes the observed increase in vestibular nystagmus with gaze in the direction of the fast phase, and its decrease with gaze in the slow phase direction.Image/MovingImage
37 Up-beat Nystagmus with Palatal MyoclonusA woman who appears to have upbeat nystagmus is also noted to have palatal, labial, and sternocleidomastoid myoclonus.Image/MovingImage
38 Eye Movement Modeling; Eye-Ear TricksA surgical resident was able to combine eye and ear movements as a party trick, to intimidate a first year neurology resident.Image/MovingImage
39 Square Wave JerksThese are the most common ocular oscillations, since they occur in normals, particularly in the elderly and in many neurological disorders. They fall under a category called "saccades intrusions." A man with very subtle square waves is presented, followed by a woman with larger amplitude square wav...Image/MovingImage
40 Defective PursuitA patient with a cerebral hemispherectomy manifests ipsilateral low-gain (saccadic) pursuit, and impaired optokinetic nystagmus when the targets are moved towards the lesioned side. The multiple causes of pursuit abnormalities are discussed.Image/MovingImage
41 Bilateral Horizontal Gaze PalsyA patient with a bilateral PPRF lesion displays intact vertical gaze and convergence.Image/MovingImage
42 Various Causes of OphthalmoplegiaAs a resident, I missed the diagnoses of Ocular-Myasthenia Wernicke's, and Thyroid Eye Disease. To remind myself to consider these etiologies, I developed the "3 T's: Tensilon, Thiamine, and Thyroid. As the years past, I added two more T's: Tropia and Trauma.Image/MovingImage
43 Bilateral Internulcear OphthalmoplegiaA woman with a bilateral INO demonstrates impaired adduction and nystagmus of the abducting eyes. Her vertical gaze is intact. The dissociated optokinetic nystagmus, due to an inability of the medial recti to generate normal saccades, is again shown.Image/MovingImage
44 Pursuit SystemThe anatomical pathways of smooth pursuit are described, stressing the importance of the cerebellum that, in contrast to the saccadic system, relays information between the cortex and brain stem. The outcomes of specific cortical lesions are discussed and the important concept of gain is introduced.Image/MovingImage
45 Periodic Alternating NystagmusA patient with PAN is shown with a discussion of its appearance and etiology.Image/MovingImage
46 Horizontal Eye MovementsThe anatomic pathway involved in horizontal saccadic eye movements include the frontal eye fields, paramedian pontine reticular formation (PPRF), medial longitudinal fasciculus (MLF), and cranial nerve nuclei III and VI. The pathway for the vestibulo- ocular reflex (VOR) passes through the PPRF at ...Image/MovingImage
47 Cerebellar Eye Signs: OverviewThe wide array of cerebellar eye signs, includes, among others, saccadic intrusions and oscillations, nystagmus, gaze palsies, and impairment of the vestibulo-ocular reflex.Image/MovingImage
48 Miscellaneous Ocular OscillationsIn this final series, several eye movement abnormalities are detailed with patients used to illustrate each. KEY WORDS: opsoclonus-myoclonus, opsoclonus, square wave jerks, macro square wave jerks, pause cell dysfunction, voluntary nystagmus, eyelid nystagmus, see-saw nystagmus, superior oblique my...Image/MovingImage
49 Brain Stem Eye Movement SyndromesIn this series, the importance of the brainstem in eye movements is discussed, with particular emphasis is placed on the signficance of the paramedian pontine reticular formation (PPRF), the medial longitudinal fasciculus (MLF), and the nuclei and projections of cranial nerves III and VI. Correlat...Image/MovingImage
50 Upbeat NystagmusA female patient with upbeating nystagmus that increases in amplitude with upward gaze is shown. This type of nystagmus commonly occurs from a lesion involving one of three regions: the ponto-medullary junction, ponto-mesencephalic junction, and the anterior cerebellum. Etiologies of these lesions...Image/MovingImage
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