226 - 250 of 2,353
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TitleCreatorDescription
226 Walsh & Hoyt: Cachectic MyopathyDaniel M. Jacobson, MD (1956-2003); Howard D. Pomeranz, MD, Northwell HealthThis condition is characterized by severe, diffuse muscle wasting and loss of subcutaneous fat, with relative preservation of strength in the affected muscles. Myoedema may be present, and the muscle stretch reflexes may be depressed. In its extreme form, this disorder is progressive and severely de...
227 Walsh & Hoyt: Paraneoplastic Syndromes Involving the Eyes and Optic NervesDaniel M. Jacobson, MD (1956-2003); Howard D. Pomeranz, MD, Northwell HealthThree main paraneoplastic conditions can produce visual symptoms and signs from specific damage to ocular structures. These are the paraneoplastic retinopathies, paraneoplastic optic neuropathy, and paraneoplastic tonic pupils.
228 Walsh & Hoyt: Acute Necrotyzing MyopathyDaniel M. Jacobson, MD (1956-2003); Howard D. Pomeranz, MD, Northwell HealthAcute necrotizing myopathy is a rare and, often times, rapidly fatal noninflammatory disorder that occurs in association with various carcinomas. Affected patients experience rapidly progressive proximal weakness associated with painful and tender muscles and, in many cases, difficulty swallowing an...
229 Walsh & Hoyt: Subacute Cerebellar DegenerationDaniel M. Jacobson, MD (1956-2003); Howard D. Pomeranz, MD, Northwell HealthThis is a paraneoplastic syndrome in which the neurologic manifestations are strongly dominated by clinical abnormalities referable to pancerebellar dysfunction, including truncal and limb ataxia. The syndrome is rare compared with paraneoplastic encephalomyelitis. Nevertheless, if one considers all...
230 Walsh & Hoyt: Paraneoplastic EncephalomyelitisDaniel M. Jacobson, MD (1956-2003); Howard D. Pomeranz, MD, Northwell HealthHenson et al. first used the term encephalomyelitis with carcinoma to describe the development of progressive clinical manifestations that implicated injury to multiple levels of the nervous system in a group of patients with various malignanciesmost often small-cell lung cancer. Paraneoplastic ence...
231 Walsh & Hoyt: Carcinomatous NeuromyopathyDaniel M. Jacobson, MD (1956-2003); Howard D. Pomeranz, MD, Northwell HealthHistorically, the term carcinomatous neuromyopathy was once used to describe all remote effects of cancer affecting the peripheral nervous system that caused weakness. As the identification of specific paraneoplastic disorders affecting the peripheral nerves, neuromuscular junction, and skeletal mus...
232 Walsh & Hoyt: Chronic Progressive Sensorimotor NeuropathyDaniel M. Jacobson, MD (1956-2003); Howard D. Pomeranz, MD, Northwell HealthThis paraneoplastic peripheral neuropathy is actually a heterogeneous group of conditions whose common clinical feature includes a relentless course of progressive loss of motor and sensory function over many months or even years. The clinical manifestations are nonspecific but reflect injury of per...
233 Walsh & Hoyt: Eaton-Lambert Syndrome: Clinical FeaturesDaniel M. Jacobson, MD (1956-2003); Howard D. Pomeranz, MD, Northwell HealthThis myasthenic syndrome, also called the Eaton-Lambert syndrome, is more common in men than in women when associated with malignancies. Almost all of those affected are adults, but children with the disorder have been described. About 60% of patients have a malignant neoplasm, almost always small-c...
234 Walsh & Hoyt: Stiff-Man SyndromeDaniel M. Jacobson, MD (1956-2003); Howard D. Pomeranz, MD, Northwell HealthStiff-man syndrome is a disorder characterized by progressive symmetric stiffness and spasms affecting the muscles of the trunk, abdomen, and proximal extremities that produces an awkward posture and gait appearance from whence the name of the disorder was derived. The facial and bulbar muscles are ...
235 Walsh & Hoyt: Polymyositis and DermatomyositisDaniel M. Jacobson, MD (1956-2003); Howard D. Pomeranz, MD, Northwell HealthPolymyositis is an inflammatory myopathy that affects striated skeletal muscle and, less commonly, cardiac muscle. The diagnosis of polymyositis is based on the presence of at least two of the following: 1. Proximal muscle weakness. 2. Elevated serum levels of muscle-associated enzymes such as creat...
236 Walsh & Hoyt: Acute or Subacute Sensorimotor NeuropathyDaniel M. Jacobson, MD (1956-2003); Howard D. Pomeranz, MD, Northwell HealthIn this group of peripheral neuropathies, the clinical syndrome is similar to that of the Guillain-Barre syndrome. Patients develop acute or subacute weakness and numbness of the extremities associated with a variable increase in CSF protein concentration. A mild lymphocytic pleocytosis may also be ...
237 Walsh & Hoyt: Eaton-Lambert Syndrome: A Paraneoplastic Disorder of the Neuromuscular JunctionDaniel M. Jacobson, MD (1956-2003); Howard D. Pomeranz, MD, Northwell HealthA disorder resembling myasthenia gravis, occurring in patients with bronchogenic carcinoma, was first described by Anderson et al. in 1953. During the next decade, Eaton, Lambert, Rooke, and their associates at the Mayo Clinic studied the clinical and physiologic characteristics of this disorder in ...
238 Walsh & Hoyt: Paraneoplastic Peripheral NeuropathiesDaniel M. Jacobson, MD (1956-2003); Howard D. Pomeranz, MD, Northwell HealthThe most common cause of peripheral neuropathy in a patient with cancer is compression of a nerve trunk by a mass of tumor cells. Less commonly, neuropathies result from infiltration by tumor cells of the epineurium of spinal or cranial nerve roots or peripheral nerves. Peripheral nerves can also be...
239 Walsh & Hoyt: Paraneoplastic Syndrome of Opsoclonus, Myoclonus, and AtaxiaDaniel M. Jacobson, MD (1956-2003); Howard D. Pomeranz, MD, Northwell HealthThe syndrome of opsoclonus (and ocular flutter), myoclonus, and ataxia is emphasized here because it can be a remote effect of cancer in patients with neuroblastoma or other malignant tumors. Patients with this paraneoplastic disorder typically experience abrupt onset of the cardinal features, often...
240 Walsh & Hoyt: NeuromyotoniaDaniel M. Jacobson, MD (1956-2003); Howard D. Pomeranz, MD, Northwell HealthAcquired neuromyotonia, also called Isaacs syndrome, the syndrome of continuous muscle fiber activity, or pseudomyotonia, is a disorder of unknown cause that produces continuous muscle activity and delayed relaxation following active contraction. The continuous motor unit activity is caused by perip...
241 Walsh & Hoyt: Paraneoplastic Rigidity, Stiff-Man Syndrome, and NeuromyotoniaDaniel M. Jacobson, MD (1956-2003); Howard D. Pomeranz, MD, Northwell HealthIn the setting of a known or suspected neoplasm, a patient may experience progressive rigidity of the trunk and limbs from one of three paraneoplastic disorders: encephalomyelitis with predominant spinal cord involvement, an unusual syndrome called the stiff-man syndrome, and neuromyotonia. Progress...
242 Walsh & Hoyt: Subacute Motor NeuropathyDaniel M. Jacobson, MD (1956-2003); Howard D. Pomeranz, MD, Northwell HealthPatients with subacute motor neuropathy usually have an underlying systemic lymphoma that has been diagnosed by the time symptoms of the neuropathy occur. This syndrome has rarely been described in patients with other malignancies. Affected patients have no significant sensory symptoms or signs. Ins...
243 Walsh & Hoyt: Endocrine MyopathiesDaniel M. Jacobson, MD (1956-2003); Howard D. Pomeranz, MD, Northwell HealthSkeletal muscle is an important endocrine target organ that may be damaged in certain metabolic disorders that occur in association with cancer. A steroid myopathy may develop in patients with ACTH-secreting tumors or tumors of the adrenal cortex, and thyrotoxic myopathy can occur in patients with t...
244 Walsh & Hoyt: Necrotizing MyelopathyDaniel M. Jacobson, MD (1956-2003); Howard D. Pomeranz, MD, Northwell HealthNecrotizing myelopathy is the rarest of the central nervous system remote effects of cancer. Indeed, its existence as a distinct paraneoplastic syndrome was unknown for many years until several pathologically verified cases associated with systemic malignancies were reported. Although necrotizing my...
245 Walsh & Hoyt: Subacute Sensory NeuronopathyDaniel M. Jacobson, MD (1956-2003); Howard D. Pomeranz, MD, Northwell HealthA pure sensory neuronopathy can occur as a neurologically isolated remote effect of cancer, but it more often develops in the setting of a more extensive paraneoplastic encephalomyelitis. Isolated paraneoplastic subacute sensory neuronopathy is most often associated with small-cell lung cancer, but ...
246 Walsh & Hoyt: Paraneoplastic Optic NeuropathyDaniel M. Jacobson, MD (1956-2003); Howard D. Pomeranz, MD, Northwell HealthParaneoplastic optic neuropathy results in a subacute, progressive, bilateral loss of vision, usually without accompanying pain. The optic disc is edematous or normal in appearance. The optic chiasm can also be involved. Associated findings include cranial nerve palsies, polyneuropathy, vertical or ...
247 Paraneoplastic RetinopathiesDaniel M. Jacobson, MD (1956-2003); Howard D. Pomeranz, MD, Northwell HealthThree main paraneoplastic conditions can produce visual symptoms and signs from specific damage to ocular structures.
248 Paraneoplastic Diseases of Neuro-Ophthalmologic InterestDaniel M. Jacobson, MD (1956-2003); Howard D. Pomeranz, MD, Northwell HealthA number of disorders characterized by visual dysfunction, neurologic dysfunction, or both occur in the setting of known or suspected cancers but do not result from the direct effects of the tumor.
249 Orbital cellulitisBarrett J. Katz, MD, MBA, Montefiore Medical CenterOrbital cellulitis may cause an intracranial abscess, usually in the frontal or temporal lobe, by extension of the causative organism through the superior orbital fissure.
250 Walsh & Hoyt: EmpyemaBarrett J. Katz, MD, MBA, Montefiore Medical CenterEmpyema (from the Greek word meaning ""suppuration"") is pus that collects in a preformed space that is not confined by a capsule. Intracranial empyemas usually occur in the subdural or epidural spaces where the wide extent of these potential spaces and the relative avascularity of the dura are such...
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