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226 Social learning and the maintenance of cultural variation: an evolutionary model and data from East AfricaHuman societies maintain between-group variation despite mixing of people and ideas. In order for variation to remain, migrants or their children must preferentially adopt local norms, customs, and beliefs. Yet the details of how cultural variation is maintained, despite mixing, remain unknown. This...Cultural variation; cultural identity; East Africa2004
227 Genetic variation at the MCIR Locus and the time since loss of human body hairThe melanocortin I receptor (MCIR) locus makes a protein that affects the color of skin and hair. At this locus, amino-acid differences are entirely absent among African humans, abundant among non-Africans (especially Europeans), and abundant in chimpanzee/human comparisons (Rana et al. 1999, Hardin...Nonsynonymous; Chimpanzee; Constraint2004
228 How do I love thee? Implications of attachment theory for understanding same-sex love and desireHazan and Shaver's (1987) seminal notion that romantic love is an adult "version" of infant-caregiver attachment radically transformed our understanding of the nature and dynamics of adult intimate pair bonds, and the reverberations of this conceptual turning point continue to shape psychological re...Attachment Behavior; Psychology; Research; Romantic relationships2004
229 Psychobiological perspectives on attachment: implications for health over the lifespanOne of the most robust findings to emerge from health psychology over the past 30 years is that individuals in enduring, committed romantic relationships have longer, healthier, and happier lives than unmarried individuals (Kitigawa & Hauser, 1973; Ryff, Singer, Wing, & Love, 2001; Stack & Eshleman,...Health Psychology; Psychobiology; Relationships; Well-being2004
230 Homeownership determinants for Chinese Americans: assimilation, ethnic concentration, and nativityChinese homeownership rates in the Los Angeles CMSA adjusted by socioeconomic and housing market characteristics are on average 18 percentage points higher than those of native white households Painter et al. (2003). This finding runs contrary to most of immigration literature, which suggests that i...Chinese Americans; homeownership2004
231 Trends and transitions in children's coresidence with older adults in the Beijing municipalityThis paper examines a) whether rates of coresidence between older adults and their adult children in the Beijing municipality of China have been declining, and b) the determinants of coresidence and coresidence transitions. The reduction in family size in China and concurrent social and economic cha...Coresidence; Beijing Municipality; Old-age support2004
232 Crime, new housing, and housing incivilities in a first-ring suburb: multilevel relationships across timeConcepts deriving from criminology, housing policy, and environmental psychology are integrated to test two ways that housing conditions could relate to crime in a declining first-ring suburb of Salt Lake City. For existing housing, we use a model to test whether housing incivilities, such as litte...Community development; Community revitalization; Crime; Urban policy2004
233 Prehistoric human impacts on California birds: evidence from the Emeryville Shellmound AvifaunaThe abundance of artiodactyls, marine mammals, waterfowl, seabirds, and other animals in 18th- and 19th-century California astonished early explorers, and the incredible wildlife densities reported in their accounts are routinely taken as analogues for the original or pristine zoological condition. ...Avifauna; Prehistoric hunting; Biological evaluation of environmental impacts2004
234 After neoliberalism: empire, social democracy, or socialism?Analyzes political doctrines such as imperialism, social democracy and socialism as a possible economic trend after the neoliberalism era. Characteristics of neoliberal regime; Alternative scenarios of global economic crisis; Problems that a revived social democratic capitalism would not address; Ac...Political doctrines; Liberalism; Imperialism2004
235 Methods for preparing dry, partially articulated skeletons of osteichthyans, with notes on making ridewood dissections of the cranial skeletonWe describe methods for preparing dry skeletons of virtually any osteichthyan species with a well-ossified skeleton, including very large specimens (e.g., > 1 m Megalops atlanticus). Our approach differs from those conventionally used to prepare skeletons of tetrapods in that (1) fairly complete di...Skeleton preparation; Study specimens; Partially articulated skeletons; Osteichthyans; Ridewood dissections; Cranial skeleton2004
236 Small-State crisis management: the lcelandic wayThe editors would like to extend a heartfelt thank you to a number of people and institutions, which have made this volume on Icelandic crisis management possible. We would like to first of all thank all of the case writers for their pioneering research and for their Icelandic stubbornness and accep...2004
237 Fertility intentions following testing for a BRCA1 gene mutationObjective: To test whether fertility intentions differed among persons who tested positive, tested negative, or did not know their genetic status for a mutation of the BRCA1 gene. Method: Participants were members of a large Utah-based kindred with an identified mutation at the BRCA1 locus. Particip...Genetic testing; Fertility; Risk notification: BRCA12004
238 Differentials in life expectancy and active life expectancy by socioeconomic status among older adults in BeijingThe study compares estimates of life expectancy and active life expectancy across indicators of socioeconomic status for a cohort of older adults in Beijing Municipality. Our aim is to determine whether associations found are consistent across indicators and with those typically observed in Western...Active life expectancy; Functional limitations2004
239 Development and evaluation of a high-fidelity simulator training program for snowplow operatorsThe safe operation of a snowplow requires a high level of expertise. Drivers often operate in very stressful situations, maneuvering 30 tons of equipment in tight quarters in blizzard conditions. Drivers often work long shifts, negotiate their vehicle in heavy traffic, on slippery roads with very li...Snowplow operators; Simulators; Accidents2004
240 Pristine benchmarks and indigenous conservation? Implications from California zooarchaeologyThe superabundance of tame wildlife during the early historic period in California astonished European explorers. And the historic accounts of incredible animal densities, most notably artiodactyls, have influenced a long-held perception that California Indians lived in harmony with nature. However,...2004-01-01
241 Neighborhood environment and health in old age: what role do individual characteristics play in this link?This research investigates the relationship among objectively assessed neighborhood SES, subjective perceptions of neighborhood environment, and self-rated physical health among older persons. We further explore the structural and psychosocial mechanisms at the individual level underlying the observ...Community; District; Geriatric; Elderly; Healthcare2004-01-16
242 Passionate friendships among adolescent sexual-minority womenAbstract:Adolescent friendships containing the emotional intensity of romantic relationships, yet lacking sexual activity, have been documented in numerous cultures and historical periods. This research explores these relationships among contemporary young sexual-minority women. Phone interviews wit...Sexual attraction; Gender differences; Intimacy; Young; Love2004-04-28
243 Validation, persuasion and recycling: capitalizing on the social ecology of newspaper use.Two experiments used clinical validation to increase scrutiny of messages posted in public settings. The first experiment used a 2 (validation: no/yes) × 2 (persuasion: none/"it is important") factorial design to develop messages about newspaper recycling. The prompt (no validation/no persuasion) h...Recycling; Social Ecology; Newspapers; Social psychology2004-09
244 Obesity in America, 1960-2000: is it an age, period or cohort phenomenon?Increasing rates of obesity have sparked tremendous public concern because excess body weight is linked to a host of mortality, morbidity, and disability outcomes. Using five waves of data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), this project privides a four-decade pict...Health, weight; Overweight; Population trends2004-09-23
245 Half-life of cost-of-illness estimates: the case of Spina BifidaNeural tube defects, which include spina bifida, are one of the most frequent and important categories of birth defects. Accordingly, there has been considerable interest in studying the impact of spina bifida as a public health problem. This impact can be measured in various ways, including dise...Spinal cord; Birth defect; Healthcare costs2004-10-12
246 Costs and benefits of folic acid fortification in the United States: economic analysis, regulatory action, and public healthThe United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) required that as of January 1, 1998, manufacturers of enriched cereal- grain products fortify their products with folic acid to reduce the number of pregnancies affected by a neural tube defect (NTD). Prior to adoption of the regulation in 1996...Nutrition; Gestation; Maturnity; Birth defects2004-10-14
247 Economic man in cross-cultural perspective: behavioral experiments in 15 small-scale societiesSince "Selfishness examined . . ." (Caporael et al. 1989) appeared in these pages, more than 15 years ago, many additional experiments have strongly confirmed the doubts expressed by Caporael and her collaborators concerning the adequacy of self-interest as a behavioral foundation for the social sci...Economic outcomes; Selfishness; Fairness; Reciprocity2005
248 Mixed blessings of no-fault divorceBetween the mid-1960s and 1979 the crude divorce rate in the United States more than doubled.1 Although divorce had increased at a steady rate for more than the previous 100 years, the mid-1960s marked the beginning of an unprecedented boom.2 Despite modest declines over the last twenty years,3 th...Divorce reform2005
249 Review: Race, liberalism, and economicsChoose any two of these three topics: race, liberalism, and economics. Now trace the connections between the two that you have chosen over the course of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, incorporating both fundamental philosophical concepts and policy implications. Doing this could easily prod...Racism; Classical liberalism; Paternalism2005
250 Modeling the amplification dynamics of human Alu retrotransposonsRetrotransposons have had a considerable impact on the overall architecture of the human genome. Currently, there are three lineages of retrotransposons (Alu, L1, and SVA) that are believed to be actively replicating in humans. While estimates of their copy number, sequence diversity, and levels of ...Retrotransposons; Amplification dynamics; Mutation; Human-chimpanzee divergence2005
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