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226 Couldwell, William T.Pituitary gland metastasis from adenocarcinoma of the prostateA case of prostatic carcinoma metastasis to the pituitary gland is reported. The presentation and rarity of such a lesion is addressed. The literature review yielded only isolated case reports of symptomatic brain metastases unassociated with bone disease from adenocarcinoma of the prostate. The man...Prostate; Pituitary gland; Adenocarcinoma; Metastasis; Transsphenoidal surgery1989
227 Couldwell, William T.Pituitary modelsPituitary tumor animal models provide researchers a microenvironment that simulates the clinical situation; however, in comparison with astrocytoma and meningioma tumor research where intracranial xenograft transplantations are increasingly being used to test various therapeutic modalities, in vivo ...2013-01-01
228 Couldwell, William T.Porous polyethylene implant for cranioplasty and skull base reconstructionObject. Cranial reconstruction after skull base surgery is important for restoration of function and cosmesis. The authors describe their experience with the Medpor porous polyethylene implant for cosmetic cranioplasty and reconstruction after skull base surgery. Methods. Medpor, a biocompatible i...2004
229 Couldwell, William T.Posterior fossa brain tumors and arterial hypertensionHypertension caused by arterial compression of the rostral ventrolateral medulla is well described. Much less information is available on the association between neurogenic hypertension and posterior fossa brain tumors. To date, multiple reports have supported the impression that a small subpopulat...Posterior fossa tumors; Brain stem; Arterial hypertension; Essential hypertension; EHTN2006
230 Couldwell, William T.Posterolateral approach for decompression with anterior and posterior fusion: a less invasive surgical technique for stabilization of the thoracic spineThe goals of surgery in unstable thoracic fractures or tumors involving the thoracic spine are neural decompression, correction of deformity, and stabilization. Several different approaches can be used to achieve these goals. The anterior, combined anterior and posterior, and more recently thoraco...Decompression; Thoracic spine; Posterolateral approach1998
231 Kestle, John R. W.Potentially useful outcome measures for clinical research in pediatric neurosurgeryThe choice of outcome (or outcomes) and their measurement are critical for a sound clinical trial. Surgeons have traditionally measured simple outcomes such as death, duration of survival, or tumor recurrence but have recently developed more sophisticated measures of the effect of an intervention. M...Pediatric neurosurgery2005
232 Couldwell, William T.Practicing neurosurgery in the United StatesCompared with other developed countries, the U.S. spends a high percentage of its gross domestic product on healthcare: 16 percent in 2005, up from 15 percent in 2004. This is far and away the greatest percentage of GDP spent on healthcare of any nation for which such data is collected. However,...2008-01-01
233 Kestle, John R. W.Predicting shunt failure on the basis of clinical symptoms and signs in childrenObject. In evaluating pediatric patients for shunt malfunction, predictive values for symptoms and signs are important in deciding which patients should undergo an imaging study, whereas determining clinical findings that correlate with a low probability of shunt failure could simplify management. ...Pediatric Shunt Design Trial; PSDT; Shunt failure; Shunt malfunction; Clinical signs2001
234 Kestle, John R. W.Predicting slitlike ventricles in children on the basis of baseline characteristics at the time of shunt insertionObject. Slit ventricle syndrome (SVS) is a delayed complication of shunt insertion and occurs only in children with slitlike ventricles after shunt placement. Although SVS appears to be related to early shunt placement, its predisposing factors are largely unknown. Methods. Baseline data in 737 chi...Slitlike ventricles; Slit ventricle syndrome; Shunt insertion; Predictive factor; Ventriculoperitoneal shunt; Pediatric neurosurgery2007
235 Couldwell, William T.Predictive value of serum prolactin levels measured immediately after transsphenoidal surgeryObject. Prolactin-secreting pituitary adenomas may be managed by surgery, medication, radiotherapy, or observation. The authors reviewed a consecutive series of patients who were followed for at least 5 years after surgery to assess the prognostic significance of preoperative factors (tumor size and...Prolactin; Transsphenoidal surgery; Pituitary adenoma; Prolactinoma; Transsphenoidal approach2002
236 Kestle, John R. W.Priorities for hydrocephalus research: report from a National Institutes of Health-sponsored workshopObject. Treatment for hydrocephalus has not advanced appreciably since the advent of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) shunts more than 50 years ago. Many questions remain that clinical and basic research could address, which in turn could improve therapeutic options. To clarify the main issues facing hydr...Biomedical research2007
237 Couldwell, William T.Prognostic variables in surgery for skull base meningiomasThe authors have retrospectively analyzed selected surgical and pathological observations made among a group of 20 patients harboring recurrent cranial base meningiomas in an attempt to reveal which factors may be important in predicting tumor recurrence. This cohort was compared with a group of 3...Skull base; Prognostic factor; Recurrence1997
238 Couldwell, William T.Prolactinomas: focus on indications, outcomes and management of recurrencesAlthough prolactinomas are discovered at autopsy with equal frequency in women and men, they present clinically in women far more often than in men. In children, "in whom they are the most common type of adenoma, prolactinomas are seen more often in girls than in boys. In a series of nearly 400 PRL...Outcome; Pituitary adenoma; Prognosis; Prolactin; Transsphenoidal surgery1999
239 Kestle, John R. W.Propionibacterium encephalitis [Letter to the editor]To THE EDITOR: We read with interest the article by Camarata, et al., reporting two cases of dorsal midbrain encephalitis (Camarata PJ, McGeachie RE, Haines S J: Dorsal midbrain encephalitis caused by Propionibacterium aches. Report of two cases. J Neurosurg 72." 654-659, April, 1990). There are...1990
240 Couldwell, William T.Protein kinase C activity correlates with the growth rate of malignant gliomas: Part II. Effects of glioma mitogens and modulators of protein kinase CTHE PROLIFERATION RATES of gliomas may be modulated by the protein kinase C (PKC) signal transduction system. The present study was undertaken to further examine the role of PKC system in growth regulation of gliomas in vitro by measurement of PKC activity over various phases of tumor growth and by ...Protein kinase C; Brain neoplasms; Growth factor; Glioma; Phorbol ester1992
241 Couldwell, William T.Protein kinase C and growth regulation in malignant gliomasTo the Editor: The presence of amplified growth factor systems in many tumor models, including malignant gliomas, raises the question of how such external signals are transduced into a transformed phenotype (increased proliferation, invasion, lack of contact inhibition, angiogenic capacity, etc.). ...Protein kinase C; Glioma; Brain neoplasm; protooncogenes; Apoptosis; Tamoxifen1994
242 Couldwell, William T.Protein kinase C inhibitors suppress cell growth in established and low-passage glioma cell lines. a comparison between staurosporine and tamoxifenWE HAVE PREVIOUSLY demonstrated that the proliferation of established human glioma cell lines correlated with protein kinase C (PKC) activity and that a relatively selective PKC inhibitor, staurosporine, inhibits glioma cell proliferation. The purpose of this study was to determine whether low-passa...Staurosporin; Tamoxifen; Protein kinase C; Glioma; Brain neoplasm; Glioma cell lines1993
243 Couldwell, William T.Radiographic features of tumefactive giant cavernous angiomasGiant cavernous angiomas (GCAs) are very rare, and imaging features of GCAs can be very different from those of typical cavernous angiomas (CAs), making them a diagnostic challenge. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the radiographic features of GCAs, with an emphasis on the differentiating fe...Cavernous angiomas; Cavernous malformations; Tumefactive2008
244 Kestle, John R. W.Randomized trial of cerebrospinal fluid shunt valve design in pediatric hydrocephalusOBJECTIVE: Forty percent of standard cerebrospinal fluid shunts implanted for the treatment of pediatric hydrocephalus fail within the first year. Two new shunt valves designed to limit excess flow, particularly in upright positions, were studied to compare treatment failure rates with those for st...Shunt failure; Valve design; Orbis-Sigma valve; Delta valve1998
245 Couldwell, William T.Rathke cleft cyst intracystic nodule: a characteristic magnetic resonance imaging findingObject. The fluid content of Rathke cleft cysts (RCCs) displays variable appearances on magnetic resonance (MR) images and can appear indistinguishable from other intrasellar or suprasellar cystic lesions. Intracystic nodules associated with individual RCCs have been noted, but to date their signifi...2005
246 Osborne, Anne G.; Couldwell, William T.Rathke cleft cyst intracystic nodule: a characteristic magnetic resonance imaging finding.OBJECT: The fluid content of Rathke cleft cysts (RCCs) displays variable appearances on magnetic resonance (MR) images and can appear indistinguishable from other intrasellar or suprasellar cystic lesions. Intracystic nodules associated with individual RCCs have been noted, but to date their signifi...Brain Neoplasms; Central Nervous System Cysts; Magnetic Resonance Imaging2005-11-01
247 Couldwell, William T.Recurrent infrasellar clival craniopharyngiomaThe patient is a 44-year-old man who underwent resection of a posterior nasopharynx tumor 12 years earlier via left lateral rhinotomy approach. The final pathological analysis indicated the tumor was a craniopharyngioma, and the patient subsequently underwent focal radiation. The patient returned t...Ectopic Craniopharyngioma; Recurrence; Infrasellar; Clivus2007
248 Kestle, John R. W.Reduction of hemorrhage risk after stereotactic radiosurgery for cavernous malformationsThe benefits of radiosurgery for cavernous malformations are difficult to assess because of the unclear natural history of this vascular lesion, the inability to image malformation vessels, and the lack of an imaging technique that defines "cure." The authors selected for radiosurgery 47 patients w...Cavernous malformation; Gamma knife; Stereotactic radiosurgery1995
249 Kestle, John R. W.Reduction of transfusion rates in the surgical correction of sagittal synostosisObject. As public concern about the risks of blood transfusions increased in the mid-1990s, avoidance of transfusions became a goal of surgery for sagittal synostosis. This study was performed to confirm a hypothesized reduction in transfusion rates in recent years and to identify factors associated...Sagittal synostosis; Sagittal craniosynostosis; Craniectomy; Allogenic blood transfusion; Reduction2002
250 Kestle, John R. W.Relationship of intraoperative electrophysiological criteria to outcome after selective functional posterior rhizotomyAt British Columbia's Children's Hospital, the criteria used in selective functional posterior rhizotomy (SFPR) evolved in three distinct phases. In Phase 1 the electrophysiological criteria for abnormality included a low threshold to a single stimulation, a sustained response to 50-Hz stimulation, ...Selective posterior rhizotomy; Electrophysiological criteria; Intraoperative electrical stimulation1995
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