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1 Retinal EmboliTemporary loss of vision in one eye, termed transient monocular blindness (TMB), is the most important visual symptom of arteriosclerotic vascular disease, arteritis and states of altered coagulability and thrombocytosis. In most patients, the visual disturbance during each individual attack of ...Image/MovingImage
2 The Prize: An Interview with David H. Hubel Nobel Laureate Physiology or Medicine 1981David H. Hubel is the John Enders University Professor of Neurobiology at Harvard Medical School. Born in Canada of American parents, he grew up in Montreal, graduated from McGill Medical School, and received training in neurology at the Montreal Neurological Institute and Johns Hopkins Hospital. ...Image/MovingImage
3 Unilateral PtosisThis patient is a 46 year old man who carried a diagnosis of late onset diabetes mellitus and hypertension. In October 1985, five weeks prior to admission, he developed vertical diplopia while playing golf. Drooping of the left upper lid (ptosis) developed a few days later and closed the eye. Th...Image/MovingImage
4 Slow Saccade SyndromeThe patient is a 62 year old woman referred from Ireland with a one year history of unsteadiness walking which she first noted following a fall from a chair. Her gait disorder was insidious in onset and may have pre-dated the fall. Since then she had become increasingly unsteady with a tendency to f...Image/MovingImage
5 Information Processing in the Visual System: David H. Hubel, Nobel Laureate Physiology or Medicine 1981David H. Hubel is the John Enders University Professor of Neurobiology at Harvard Medical School. Born in Canada of American parents, he grew up in Montreal, graduated from McGill Medical School, and received training in neurology at the Montreal Neurological Institute and Johns Hopkins Hospital. ...Image/MovingImage
6 Hemifacial SpasmThe patient is a 72 year old man with myopia, childhood exotropia, progressive age related ptosis and right hemifacial spasm. Hemifacial spasm (HS) most often begins insidiously in the orbicularis oculi muscle in the early stages, as in this man. He presented with a 2 year history of involuntary t...Image/MovingImage
7 Hemifacial SpasmThis patient is an atypical case of hemifacial spasm because he is a young college student only 29 years of age. Hemifacial spasm usually develops in the fifth and sixth decade of life and affects women more than men. It often begins insidiously in the orbicularis oculi muscle in the early stage...Image/MovingImage
8 Lid LagThe classical eye signs of thyroid associated ophthalmopathy (TAO) of Graves' Disease is illustrated by case ID925-4. This 50 year old woman with TAO is included in the collection because she illustrates very well lid lag (persistent elevation of the upper eyelid in downgaze) - von Graefe sign E...Image/MovingImage
9 Congenital Nystagmus; Latent NystagmusThis little girl has had nystagmus since birth. She has the classical constellation of signs, initially diagnosed as congenital motor nystagmus with: • Horizontal jerk nystagmus • A slight head turn to the right to place the eyes in the null position • Latent nystagmus • Inability to superi...Image/MovingImage
10 Congenital Nystagmus: Oscillations of the EyesThis child has had nystagmus since childhood with a head turn to the left. He was seen by his pediatrician. Diagnosis: Horizontal jerk nystagmus (congenital motor nystagmus) Congenital nystagmus Classification: The Classification of Eye Movement Abnormalities and Strabismus Working Group has recomme...Image/MovingImage
11 Familial NystagmusThe mother and her infant son both have conjugate horizontal pendular nysagmus. Diagnosis: Congenital sensory nystagmus Familial Infantile Nystagmus Syndrome (INS) The little boy is a bright active child with normal development. He has pendular nystagmus in central gaze without a head turn or h...Image/MovingImage
12 Congenital NystagmusThis young boy has oculocutaneous albinism. In 1979 he presented for evaluation of oscillations of his eyes present since birth. He had no head turn or head tremor. Diagnosis: Albinism Congenital sensory nystagmus Ocular Albinism: Infants with albinism of all types are typically slow to see, ofte...Image/MovingImage
13 Third Nerve PalsyThis patient is a 58 year old woman from Peru who, in 1975, developed intermittent headaches and right retro-orbital eye pain. She was seen by several ophthalmologists in South America who were unable to make a diagnosis. In March 1977 she awoke one morning with vertical diplopia most marked on...Image/MovingImage
14 Third Nerve Palsy; Aberrant ReinnervationThe patient is a 48 year old man from Saudi Arabia who came to the Massachusetts General Hospital for a second opinion and hopefully for surgical correction of ptosis of the left eye (OS). He had a long standing left third nerve palsy due to compression of the nerve trunk by a cavernous sinus mening...Image/MovingImage
15 Bilateral Sixth Nerve PalsyThe patient is a 70 year old Italian man with atrial fibrillation on long-term coumadin therapy. In October 1995, he developed generalized headache, horizontal double vision and his left eye deviated inwards (esotropia). A diagnosis of left sixth nerve palsy was made and attributed to microvascular ...Image/MovingImage
16 Ocular FlutterThis little boy complained of difficulty focusing. On examination he was found to have ocular flutter. He was otherwise neurologically intact and in good general health. Investigations were directed to rule out 1. Neuroblastoma (see ID 936-8) 2. Enterovirus infection 3. Parainfect...Image/MovingImage
17 Pendular Vertical OscillationsIn October 1988 this 43 year old Spanish speaking man with a history of hypertension, suddenly became weak and collapsed on the floor. He was taken to an outside hospital where his blood pressure was 220/130. He was lethargic and diaphoretic and had slurred speech and a left facial palsy. A CT s...Image/MovingImage
18 Pendular Vertical OscillationsThis 36 year old woman had a nine year history of multiple sclerosis (MS) with onset in 1980. In 1989 she was seen in the neurovisual clinic for evaluation of oscillopsia, (an illusion of movement of the visual world). This symptom was accompanied by difficulty in reading because the print was "ju...Image/MovingImage
19 Gaucher's DiseaseThis little boy has Gaucher's disease. Gaucher's disease is an autosomal recessive disorder, linked to chromosome 1q21, due to glucocerebroside β-glucosidase deficiency. There are three phenotypic variances of Gaucher's disease. Type I is the most common and lacks neurological features. Type 2 is...Image/MovingImage
20 See-saw NystagmusThe patient is a 21 year old woman who was referred to an endocrinologist for evaluation of amenorrhea. She was found to have bitemporal hemianopia and compression of the chiasm. CT Brain showed: A partially cystic, partially solid suprasellar mass with focal calcification consistent with a crani...Image/MovingImage
21 Supranuclear Paralysis of UpgazeThis young child presented with headache and unsteadiness. He was found to have obstructive hydrocephalus, aqueduct stenosis and a medulloblastoma. The constellation of clinical eye signs localized to the Dorsal Midbrain and included: • Supranuclear paralysis of upgaze (saccadic and pursuit move...Image/MovingImage
22 Oculomasticatory MyorhythmiaThis case, previously reported in 1986, is published courtesy of John Selhorst, M.D., Saint Louis University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO. (4) The patient is a 46 year old man who, over a period of six months, lost the ability to read and complained of excessive somnolence, occasional urinary i...Image/MovingImage
23 Congenital Horizontal Gaze PalsyThe patient is an 8 year old boy with a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by congenital absence of conjugate horizontal eye movements preservation of vertical gaze and convergence and progressive scoliosis (HGPPS) developing in childhood. The child was referred to Dr. Cogan with a ...Image/MovingImage
24 Upbeat NystagmusThe patient is a 56 year old woman who presented in 1982, at the age of 48, with a one week history of painless loss of vision in the left eye. Past History: Negative for a previous attack of optic neuritis or transient neurological symptoms. Family History: Negative for CNS disease Neuro-ophth...Image/MovingImage
25 Supranuclear Paralysis of UpgazeThe patient is a 58 year old man who was admitted as an emergency with hypersomnolence, gait ataxia and diplopia. On the night before Thanksgiving he went to bed feeling well. He was awoken by a phone call at 2 p.m. on Thanksgiving day having over slept by 7 hours. He got out of bed to answer th...Image/MovingImage
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