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1 A Few Named Ocular Motor Syndromes to RememberValérie Biousse, MD Departments of Ophthalmology and Neurology, Emory University School of MedicineTable 40.50
2 ATAXIA-TELANGIECTASIAJohn Kerrison, MD, Retina Consultants of CharlestonAtaxia-telangiectasia (A-T) is characterized byoculocutaneous telangiectasia, progressive cerebellar ataxia, recurrent sinopulmonaryinfections, hypersensitivity to ionizing radiation, and a high incidence of lymphoreticular neoplasms (37,686-690). The syndrome is widely distributed, both geographica...
3 Abducens (Sixth) Nerve Palsy and Nuclear Horizontal Gaze ParalysisJane C. Sargent, MD, Neurology, Clinical Neurophysiology, University of MassachusettsThe abducens nerve is unique in that damage to its nucleus results not in ipsilateral abduction weakness but in horizontal gaze paralysis toward the side of the lesion.
4 Abducens Nucleus and NerveJames A. Sharpe, MD, FRCP(C) (1941-2013); Agnes Wong, MD, PhD, FRCSC, University of TorontoFigure 17.20
5 Abducens Nucleus and NerveJames A. Sharpe, MD, FRCP(C) (1941-2013); Agnes Wong, MD, PhD, FRCSC, University of TorontoThe sixth (abducens) nerve is somewhat larger than the trochlear nerve, but it is only about one-third the size of the oculomotor nerve. It innervates the ipsilateral lateral rectus muscle.
6 Abducens Nucleus and NerveJames A. Sharpe, MD, FRCP(C) (1941-2013); Agnes Wong, MD, PhD, FRCSC, University of TorontoThe sixth (abducens) nerve is somewhat larger than the trochlear nerve, but it is only about one-third the size of the oculomotor nerve. It innervates the ipsilateral lateral rectus muscle.
7 Aberrant Regeneration of Third NerveGregory P. Van Stavern, MD, Associate Professor, Ophthalmology & Visual Sciences and Neurology, Washington University School of Medicine48 year old woman S/P rupture and repair of right sided posterior communicating artery aneurysm Video shows residual partial right third nerve palsy, with aberrant regeneration, causing a pseudo Von Graefe's sign (elevation of the right upper eyelid with attempted infraduction of the right eye) Se...
8 Abnormalities of Eyelid ClosureBarry Skarf, MD, PhD, Henry Ford Health SystemAs with eyelid opening, insufficient eyelid closure can be neuropathic, neuromuscular, or myopathic in origin.
9 Accomodation Insufficiency Associated with Systemic DiseaseAki Kawasaki, MD, PhD, Faculty of Biology and Medicine, University of LausanneChildren and adults may develop transient accommodation paresis following various systemic illnesses.
10 Acquired DefectsAki Kawasaki, MD, PhD, Faculty of Biology and Medicine, University of LausanneSpastic miosis is a constant and immediate result of trauma to the globe and occurs immediately after blunt trauma to the cornea.
11 Acquired HyperopiaAAO/NANOS - American Academy of Ophthalmology / North American Neuro-Ophthalmology SocietyChoroidal folds may result from choroidal tumors, compression on the eye wall from thyroid ophthalmopathy, orbital pseudotumor, orbital tumor, posterior scleritis, hypotony, scleral laceration, retinal detachment, marked hyperopia, or secondary to papilledema. Intraocular pressure measurements, refr...
12 Acquired Pendular Nystagmus and Its Relationship to Disease of the Visual PathwaysJohn R. Leigh, MD, Professor of Neurology, Emeritus, Case Western Reserve University; Janet C. Rucker, MD, NYU Langone HealthAcquired pendular nystagmus is one of the more common types of nystagmus and is associated with the most distressing visual symptoms.
13 Acquired Third Nerve PalsiesJane C. Sargent, MD, Neurology, Clinical Neurophysiology, University of MassachusettsAcquired dysfunction of the oculomotor nerve is far more common than congenital dysfunction, being caused by nearly every pathologic process.
14 Acquired Third Nerve PalsiesJane C. Sargent, MD, Neurology, Clinical Neurophysiology, University of MassachusettsCyclic oculomotor paresis is occasionally associated with other pathologic conditions, including birth trauma and congenital infections.
15 Acquired Trochlear (Fourth) Nerve PalsiesJane C. Sargent, MD, Neurology, Clinical Neurophysiology, University of MassachusettsWhen an etiology can be determined, blunt head trauma, usually a direct orbital, frontal, basal, or oblique cranial blow, is the most common cause of isolated, acquired, unilateral and bilateral trochlear nerve palsy in both adults and children.
16 Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis (ADEM, Postinfectious Encephalomyelitis)Laura J. Balcer, MD, Professor, Department of Neurology, NYU LangoneSome viruses seem to induce a demyelinating encephalomyelitis that results from the immunologic complications of the infection and not from actual damage to the CNS from the virus itself.
17 Acute Herpes Zoster and Post-Herpetic Neuralgia (PHN)Gregory P. Van Stavern, MD, Associate Professor, Ophthalmology & Visual Sciences and Neurology, Washington University School of MedicineHerpes zoster occurs due to reactivation of dormant varicella zoster virus within neurons.
18 Acute Multifocal Pigment Epithelium Epitheliopathy (AMPEE)Gregory P. Van Stavern, MD, Associate Professor, Ophthalmology & Visual Sciences and Neurology, Washington University School of MedicineImages providing example of Acute Multifocal Pigment Epithelium Epitheliopathy (AMPEE)
19 Acute Posterior Multifocal Placoid Pigment EpitheliopathySteven L. Galetta, MD, NYU LangoneAcute posterior multifocal placoid pigment epitheliopathy was first described by Gass in 1968.
20 Acute Retinal Necrosis (ARN)Gregory P. Van Stavern, MD, Associate Professor, Ophthalmology & Visual Sciences and Neurology, Washington University School of MedicineAcute Retinal Necrosis causes inflammation and subsequent retinal detachment. This powerpoint provides images depicting ARN.
21 Acute zonal occult outer retinopathy (AZOOR) versus multiple evanescent white dot syndrome (MEWDS)Asim V. Farooq, MD University of Chicago Medicine, Michael T. Andreoli, MD, Wheaton Eye Clinic, Heather E. Moss, MD, Department of Ophthalmology & Visual Sciences, University of Illinois at Chicago College of MedicinePPT case report on acute zonal occult outer retinopathy (AZOOR) versus multiple evanescent white dot syndrome (MEWDS).
22 Adie (Homles-Adie) Tonic Pupil SyndromeAki Kawasaki, MD, PhD, Faculty of Biology and Medicine, University of LausanneAdie syndrome is an uncommon, idiopathic condition that may develop in otherwise healthy persons and in patients with unrelated conditions.
23 Afferent AbnormalitiesAki Kawasaki, MD, PhD, Faculty of Biology and Medicine, University of LausanneThe relative afferent pupillary defect (RAPD) is one of the most important objective signs of dysfunction in the afferent visual pathway.
24 Albrecht von GraefeKathleen B. Digre, MD, Professor of Neurology and Ophthalmology, Director of Neuro-Ophthalmology, John A. Moran Eye Center, University of Utah School of Medicine; James J. Corbett, MD, University Of MississippiBiography of Albrecht von Graefe.
25 Alcoholic Cerebellar DegenerationShirley H. Wray, M.D., Ph.D., Professor of Neurology, Harvard Medical School; Director, Unit for Neurovisual Disorders, Massachusetts General Hospital
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