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1 Anatomy of the Ocular FundusA review of normal features of the ocular fundus. Fundus photography using various techniques illustrate anatomic features of the ocular fundus. - Figure 1 : A) Color fundus photograph of the left optic disc and peripapillary retina showing a normal optic disc, retinal arteries, retinal veins, and...Devin D. Mackay, M.D. Emory Eye Center Atlanta, Georgia; Valérie Biousse, MD Departments of Ophthalmology and Neurology, Emory University School of Medicine
2 Anatomy of the Trigeminal NerveMRI and CT scan imaging of the trigeminal nerve and its 3 divisions. Figure 1 : trigeminal nerve. Overview Figure 2 : trigeminal nuclei Figure 3 : trigeminal root. Cisternal segment. Figure 3A. FIESTA axial image through midpons. Figure 3B. T2 coronal image through prepontine cistern Figure 4 : trig...Samuel Bidot, MD, Emory Eye Center Atlanta, Georgia; Amit M. Saindane, MD, Emory Eye Center Atlanta, Georgia; Valérie Biousse, MD Departments of Ophthalmology and Neurology, Emory University School of Medicine
3 Bilateral lens subluxation in Marfan syndromeThis is a case of known Marfan syndrome with bilateral progressive visual loss. The ocular examination showed bilateral lens dislocation. Figure 1a: Typical superonasal lens subluxation in both eyes Figure 1b: The arrows show the inferior edges of the lenses Figure 2: Optical section of the lenses u...Rabih Hage, MD, Emory Eye Center Atlanta Georgia; Valérie Biousse, MD Departments of Ophthalmology and Neurology, Emory University School of Medicine
4 Cavernous sinus meningioma extending into the orbital apexSeptic left cavernous sinus and superior ophthalmic vein thrombosis, secondary to left maxillary tooth abscess. MRI characteristics Figure 1 : MRI Orbits (Coronal T2 with fat suppression) : Left periorbital edema (increased T2 signal, yellow arrows) extends inferiorly along the premalar tissues to t...Supharat Jariyakosol, MD, Emory Eye Center Atlanta Georgia; Valérie Biousse, MD Departments of Ophthalmology and Neurology, Emory University School of Medicine
5 Central retinal artery occlusion with cilioretinal artery sparingCentral retinal artery occlusion with sparing of the cilioretinal artery Figure 1 : Fundus photographs show retinal whitening in the right eye, with sparing of the perfused retina in the distribution of the cilioretinal artery (arrows); the left eye has a normal funduscopic appearance. Figure 2 : Mo...Supharat Jariyakosol, MD, Emory Eye Center Atlanta Georgia; Valérie Biousse, MD Departments of Ophthalmology and Neurology, Emory University School of Medicine
6 Cerebral Arterial VascularizationArteries of the neck and brain as seen on a CT Angiogram. Figure 1 : Overview. Figure 1A. Anterior view. Figure 1B. Lateral view. Figure 2 : Internal carotid artery. Segmentation. Figure 3 : Internal carotid artery and vertebral arteries. Extracranial part. Posterolateral view. Figure 4 : Internal c...Samuel Bidot, MD, Emory Eye Center Atlanta, Georgia; Amit M. Saindane, MD, Emory Eye Center Atlanta, Georgia; Valérie Biousse, MD Departments of Ophthalmology and Neurology, Emory University School of Medicine
7 Cerebral venous sinus thrombosis with papilledemaA case of superior sagittal sinus, right transverse sinus and right sigmoid sinus thrombosis, presenting with increased intracranial pressure (headaches, bilateral sixth palsy and papilledema). Figure 1 : Disc photos of the right and left eyes demonstrating bilateral disc edema. Figure 2 : Non-contr...Supharat Jariyakosol, MD, Emory Eye Center Atlanta Georgia; Valérie Biousse, MD Departments of Ophthalmology and Neurology, Emory University School of Medicine
8 Cerebral Venous VascularizationMRV and CTV scan imaging of the brain veins. Figure 1 : Overview. MRV with contrast Figure 1A. Right postero-lateral view. Figure 1B. Sagittal view. Figure 2 : Dural sinuses. Superior endocranial view. CTV. Figure 3 : Dural sinuses. Sagittal endocranial view. CTV. Figure 4 : Dural sinuses. Right an...Samuel Bidot, MD, Emory Eye Center Atlanta, Georgia; Amit M. Saindane, MD, Emory Eye Center Atlanta, Georgia; Valérie Biousse, MD Departments of Ophthalmology and Neurology, Emory University School of Medicine
9 Coexisting Thyroid Eye Disease and Myasthenia GravisA case of coexisting thyroid orbitopathy and myasthenia gravis. External photographs of the eyes and eyelids, as well as images from an MRI of the orbits, are included. Figure 1 : External photograph of eyes showing right lid retraction and left upper lid ptosis. Figure 2 : External photograph of ...Devin D. Mackay, M.D. Emory Eye Center Atlanta, Georgia; Valérie Biousse, MD Departments of Ophthalmology and Neurology, Emory University School of Medicine
10 Enophthalmos from breast cancer metastasis to the orbitRight painful ophthalmoplegia with right enophthalmos secondary to breast cancer metastasis to the right orbit.Valerie Biousse, MD; Emory Eye Center, Atlanta, Georgia
11 Funduscopic Findings of Acute Central Retinal Artery OcclusionA 59-year-old man was referred for assessment acute vision loss in the right eye. His examination showed: best-corrected visual acuity: light perception OD, 20/20 OS; pupils: Relative afferent pupillary defect OD; color vision: unable to visualize control plate OD, 14/14 OS correct Ishihara plates. ...David B. Enfield, MD, Ophthalmology Resident, Department of Ophthalmology, Emory University School of Medicine; Valérie Biousse, MD, Cyrus H. Stoner Professor of Ophthalmology, Professor of Ophthalmology and Neurology, Departments of Ophthalmology and Neurology, Emory University School of Medicine
12 Geniculate Nucleus Metastasis with Homonymous SectoranopiaThis is a case of multiple brain metastases in the setting of bladder cancer complicated with right homonymous horizontal sectoranopia. Figure 1: Pet-scan showing liver (yellow arrows) and kidneys (red arrow) metastases Figure 2: Goldmann Visual Fields: Right homonymous horizontal sectoranopia Figu...Rabih Hage, MD, Emory Eye Center Atlanta Georgia; Valérie Biousse, MD Departments of Ophthalmology and Neurology, Emory University School of Medicine
13 Homonymous Hemianopia Secondary to an Intracranial Bleed from an Arteriovenous MalformationThis case demonstrates a homonymous hemianopia resulting from hemorrhage secondary to a ruptured intracranial arteriovenous malformation (AVM), providing grounds for illustration and discussion of the correlations between localization of this lesion on cerebral imaging and resultant visual field and...Lauren Hudson, MD, PhD, Ophthalmology resident, Department of Ophthalmology, Emory University School of Medicine; Valérie Biousse, MD, Cyrus H. Stoner Professor of Ophthalmology, Professor of Ophthalmology and Neurology, Departments of Ophthalmology and Neurology, Emory University School of Medicin...
14 Internal Carotid Artery / Posterior Communicating Artery Aneurysm with Third Nerve Palsy Shown on CT AngiogramInternal Carotid Artery / Posterior Communicating Artery Aneurysm with Third Nerve Palsy Shown on CT Angiogram ; anatomic description of vascular and bony findings on the CTA. - Figure 1 : 51 year-old man complaining of painful binocular diplopia. Orange arrows indicate the direction of gaze. In p...Samuel Bidot, MD, Emory Eye Center Atlanta, Georgia; Amit M. Saindane, MD, Emory Eye Center Atlanta, Georgia; Valérie Biousse, MD Departments of Ophthalmology and Neurology, Emory University School of Medicine
15 Iris transilluminationSingle case of iris transillumination in a patient with albinism. Figure 1 : Anterior segment photograph demonstrating reddish hue to iris in albinism Figure 2 : Slit lamp photograph with retroillumination demonstrating iris transillumination Figure 3 : Slit lamp photograph with retroillumination...Jason Peragallo, MD, Emory Eye Center; Valérie Biousse, MD Departments of Ophthalmology and Neurology, Emory University School of Medicine
16 Large right hypophyseal aneurysm causing a junctional scotomaRight, multi-lobulated superior hypophyseal artery aneurysm measuring 1.6 x 1.2 x 2.2 cm with 6 mm neck causing a right junctional scotoma . Images from a brain CT with contrast, a brain CT angiography with contrast, cerebral angiogram, Humphrey visual fields and ocular fundus photographs are includ...Laurel N. Vuong, MD, Emory Eye Center, Valerie Biousse, MD, Emory Eye Center Atlanta, Georgia
17 Large Sellar and Suprasellar Mass (Pituitary Macroadenoma) with Left Third Nerve Palsy and Left Optic Tract CompressionA case of a large sellar and suprasellar pituitary macroadenoma with an associated left third nerve palsy and left optic tract compression. Images from an MRI of the brain with contrast illustrate the imaging characteristics and extent of the tumor. Figure 1 : Humphrey Visual Fields (24-2 SITA-Fast)...Devin D. Mackay, MD, Emory Eye Center; Valerie Biousse, MD, Emory Eye Center Atlanta, Georgia
18 Metastatic ovarian cancer to the left occipital lobe with complete right homonymous hemianopiaA case of metastatic ovarian cancer to the left occipital lobe with a complete right homonymous hemianopia. Humphrey visual fields as well as images from an MRI of the brain are included. Figure 1 : Humphrey visual fields showing a complete right homonymous hemianopia Figure 2 : MRI brain T1 axial...Devin D. Mackay, M.D. Emory Eye Center Atlanta, Georgia; Valérie Biousse, MD Departments of Ophthalmology and Neurology, Emory University School of Medicine
19 MRI Characteristics of Cavernous Sinus and Superior Ophthalmic Vein Septic ThrombosisSeptic left cavernous sinus and superior ophthalmic vein thrombosis, secondary to left maxillary tooth abscess. MRI characteristics. Figure 1 : MRI Orbits (Coronal T2 with fat suppression) : Left periorbital edema (increased T2 signal, yellow arrows) extends inferiorly along the premalar tissues to ...Devin D. Mackay, M.D. Emory Eye Center Atlanta, Georgia; Valérie Biousse, MD Departments of Ophthalmology and Neurology, Emory University School of Medicine
20 MRI findings in gliomatosis cerebriSingle case of gliomatosis cerebri identified on mulltiple MRI images pre- and post-contrast administration with axial and coronal views. Figure 1 : Axial brain MRI (T2) - Diffusely thickened and T2 hyperintense area (yellow arrows) centered within the genu of the corpus callosum with extension into...Jason Peragallo, MD, Emory Eye Center; Valérie Biousse, MD Departments of Ophthalmology and Neurology, Emory University School of Medicine
21 MRI findings in optic nerve and chiasmal glioma in childhoodMultiple cases of optic pathway gliomas are demonstrated using MRI imaging. The optic pathway gliomas are identified at multiple points in the optic pathways. Figure 1 : Patient 1: Axial orbital MRI (T1 postcontrast with fat suppression) showing thickening and enhancement of the right optic nerve a...Jason Peragallo, MD, Emory Eye Center; Valérie Biousse, MD Departments of Ophthalmology and Neurology, Emory University School of Medicine
22 Myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) - antibody optic neuritisThis is an illustrated guide to the clinical diagnosis of myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG)-antibody optic neuritis.; ; Myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) is a glycoprotein on the surface of myelin and is found exclusively in the central nervous system (CNS). MOG likely mediates a com...Bryce Buchowicz, MD, Neuro-ophthalmology Fellow, Department of Ophthalmology, Emory University School of Medicine; Valérie Biousse, MD, Cyrus H. Stoner Professor of Ophthalmology, Professor of Ophthalmology and Neurology, Departments of Ophthalmology and Neurology, Emory University School of Medici...
23 NeurosarcoidosisThis is an illustrated guide to the clinical diagnosis of neurosarcoidosis. Sarcoidosis is a chronic systemic inflammatory disorder characterized by non-caseating granulomas. It can affect multiple organ systems including the lungs, skin, orbit, and brain. When there is central nervous system (CNS) ...Bryce Buchowicz, MD, Neuro-ophthalmology Fellow, Department of Ophthalmology, Emory University School of Medicine; Valérie Biousse, MD, Cyrus H. Stoner Professor of Ophthalmology, Professor of Ophthalmology and Neurology, Departments of Ophthalmology and Neurology, Emory University School of Medici...
24 Nonfunctiong Pituitary Adenoma with Chiasmal CompressionThis is a case of large non-functioning pituitary adenoma with mass effect on the optic chiasm inducing loss of optic nerve fibers and subsequent visual field. Figure 1: Fundus photographs demonstrating bilateral temporal optic nerve head pallor Figure 2: Humphrey visual fields demonstrating a bitem...William Pearce, MD, Emory Eye Center Atlanta, Georgia; Valerie Biousse, MD, Emory Eye Center Atlanta, Georgia
25 Normal retinal anatomyNormal posterior vitreous, retinal and chroroidal anatomy (pictures, fluorescein angiography and optical coherence tomography).  Figure 1: Normal fundus photograph of the left eye o a : Optic disc and fovea o b : Foveal reflex in young patients o c : Macular and foveal areas share the same center...Rabih Hage, MD, Emory Eye Center Atlanta Georgia; Valérie Biousse, MD Departments of Ophthalmology and Neurology, Emory University School of Medicine
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